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Volume :45 Issue : 3 2017      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

The Effects of Coverings and Uses of Land in the Temperature Variation of the Holy City of Mecca and the Holy Shrines

Auther : Ebrahim Q. Darwesh

The various coverings and uses of land influence energy exchange, for the atmosphere draws heat from the Earth's surface, which usually takes place after the absorption of solar radiation, especially from the shortwaves, by the coverings and uses of the Earth's surface, and then converting it into long heat waves. Consequently, the variation in the ability of the coverings and uses of the earth's surface to reflect and absorb solar radiation affect the variation of energy exchanges and also the elements of the local climate in the Holy City of Mecca. The results of determining the absorption and reflection of solar radiation from the Landsat's images of the Holy City of Mecca and the Holy Shrines in 2015 can be summed up in the fact that there is a spatial variation in the distribution of radiation ranges. Areas of radiation absorption appear in the places, where roads, old buildings and dark rocks are sprawled, and the areas that reflect solar radiation into space appear without leaving a significant impact on temperatures in Mina, modern buildings, sandy deposits and barren soils. The high temperature radiations in the form of islands of different size emerged to the south, east and north of the Holy City of Mecca, while temperatures are lower in the interior and surrounding areas. Consequently, the findings of the research affirm that that there is a positive correlation between the distribution of the areas of absorption and reflection of solar radiation and the distribution of radiation temperatures in the Holy City of Mecca and the Holy Shrines.
Keywords: Radiation, Radiation heat, Remote sensing, GIS, Land coverings, Land uses.

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