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Volume : 48 Issue : 2 2020

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Author : Khaled Aldabbas Khalid AL-Edwan
Discipline :Political Science

Corruption Levels and Their Impact on the Froms of the 2011 Arab Uprisings and Their Consequences (2011 to 2017)

Objective: This study aims at exporing the impact of corruption levels on the forms of the 2011 Arab Uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Syria, Libya, Temen, Jordan, and Morocco. The study also aims at answering the following central question: Have the corruption levels played a major role in forming the 2011 Arab Uprisings toward reform, violence, or civil war. Methods: It is based on quantitative indicators published by International Institutions. Analytical descriptive, statistical, and comparative methods were used in this research, This study is divided into two preiods: The first period extends from 2005 until 2011 and the secound one from 2011 to 2017. Results: The study revealed that the 2011 Arab Uprising countries can be divided into three groups, the firts group is still facing a civil wae Libya, Yemen, and Syria). The levels of corruption are very high. The second group witnessed bloody Uprisings without civil wars, and their presidents were overthrown, such as Egypt, Tunisia The levels of corruption are less than the first group. The third group witnessed major protests without overthrowing the presidents (Jordaan, Morocco). These countries are monarchies, and the levels of corruption are less than the previous groups. Conclusion: The results of this study show that there is a strong correlation between the corruption levels based on CPI and FSI in forming of the 2011 Arab Uprisings toward reform, violence, or civil war.
Keywords: Corruption levels, The 2011 Arab uprising, Fragile states, Transparency.

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Author :Muhammad G Almatar Hassan Ashkanani Ahmed Hassan
Discipline :Geography

Investigating Land-Use and Land-Cover Changes of Failaka Island: A Study in Geography and Geoarchaeology

The study aims to 1- Analysis of the land-use and lanc-cover changes of Failaka Island between 1958-2018. 2- Provides a topographic survey of the island's coastline and a classification of its geomorphologyical features. 3 - Identification of its archaeological sites by using a drone to kame a terrain model.
Methods: The sutdy used several methods such as, a medium to high-resolution image analysis of the land-use and land-cover changes: World Ciew 2-50cm 2010 and 2018; Landsat 8; aerial photography; Drone images and a digityal elevation model (DEM), to analysis the expected sea level changes by the end of this century. This study also created a geodatabase of thie island that can be adapted for future studies. Results: The results emphasize the importance of preserving thi historical and ecological features of the island while developing its infrastructructure.
Keyowrds: Geoarchaeology; Urban Geomorphology; Failaka Island; GIS, RS.

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Author :Muner karadsheh Naser R. Almaoule Asila Ali Alzari
Discipline :Sociology

Factors Contribution to the Formation of Desired Occupations for Omani Women: A Field Study

This study aimed to study the social, cultural and economic determinants for women's preferred occupations.
Methods: The data was collected from three territories (northern, middle and southern) to represent Omani society. Social sample survey methodology was used in this study due to its ability to describe the problem in a comprehensive and precise way.
Results: The most important result from this study was the more urbanized people, the more they gain monthly, the more positive attitudes toward modernized professions such as banking jobs, commercial and service, and it contributes in the formation of new preferred professions for women.
Keywords: Preferred Occupations, Omani Society, Economic Factor.

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Author :Samer H. Raddad
Discipline :Political Science

Urban Farmers Community in Palestine between the Marginalizing and Empowering under the Political Instability

The study aimed to identify the social and economic characteristics of the Palestinian urban agricultural community, in addition to identifying the problems and challenges of this society and ways to empower it.
Methodology: Personal observation, field study and personal interviews with urban farmers formed the methodological basis, qualitative and quantitative, for this study.
Results: The study showed the clear negative impact of the political and geopolitical factors represented by the Israeli policies on Palestinian urban agriculture and its weakening. The absence of legislation for agricultural activity and spatial competition on urban land, in addition to the negative view of urban agriculture due to the focus on its risks rather than its benefits, is one of the most important factors behind the marginalization of this society in a large way in Palestine. Empowering the Palestinian urban agricultural community depends mainly on two pillars. The first is to work to improve the performance of urban farmers themselves through the establishment of an organized formal institutional framework that works to strengthen the urban agricultural community itself. As for the second trend, it is related to decision-makers and urban and agricultural policymakers in Palestine.
Conclusion: Developing the Palestinian urban agriculture sector and supporting Palestinian urban farmers will transform agricultural activities in cities from an element of urban sustainability in situations of peace to a tool of resistance in light of political instability.
Keywords: Urban Agriculture, Urban Farmers Society, Political Instability, Plaestine.

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Author :Yacoub Bahdah
Discipline :Political Science

Tribe and State Delicate in Mauritania: From the Colonial Era to the Multi-Party Nation

This study aims at revealing the tribإs nature, structure, and history of the "Bidhan" Arab tribal system in Mauritania. The study also finds tribal leaders' pattern of managing individuals and relations with colonial and post-colonial state authorities. In addition, the study sheds light on the tribal system's religious and social mechanisms for managing community affairs and inter-tribal relations. Another objective of this paper is to present the tribe's status based on historical accumulations and the present socio-political situation. Methods: Using the historical method, due to the study's nature, a number of Arabic and foreign studies were reviwed in order to answer the research questions under investigation. A main feature of the historical method is that it revives the past to collect information about events, and it helps unverstand the present by collecting, comparing and analysing data. This helps decipher and better understand today's data more realistically. Results: The study found that historical, geographical, environmental, and economic factors affected the status of "Bidhan" tribe. Such factors contribute to determining the tribe's nature and its exdterna relations including relations with authorities.
Conclusion: Tribe's presence is widely noticed in all aspects of life and the tribe is more powerful than any other enriry. There are no indicators that the tribe's role, status, and domination will relinquish soon.
Keywords: Mauritania, Tribe, Bidhan, Arab tribes, Banu Hassan, State, Power.

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Author :Hesham H. Alasale
Discipline :Anthropology

Content Analysis of Egyptian Proverbs in Light of Schwartz's Basic Values Model

 This research is one of the topics of cultural psychology. It aims to identify the basic values included in the Egyptian proverbs.
Methods: The procedures of the research included content analysis of 1745 proverbs from the "Egyptian Proverbs" book, published in 1949. The proverbs content was analyzed in light of Schwartz's basic values model.
Results: The results of the study revealed a representation of proverbs for basic values. However, their representation and prioritization ratios differed from what is common in contemporary cross-cultural research.
Conclusion: Proverbs are useful for revealing cultural particularities.
Keywords: Cultural Psychology, Basic Values Model, Proverbs.

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Author :Noah M. Al-Sababhah Samer A. Al-Nawaiseh Mohammad A. Zeitoun
Discipline :Geography

Assessment of Water Balance Elements as an Indicator of Climate Change in North of Jordan for the Period (1974-2013)

This research investigates the influences of climate change on water balance for the timeframe (1974-2013) in the north region of Jordan based on (TM) model. Methoods: In tis regard, (TM) model was implemented for two periods namely (1974-1993) and (1994-2013) in order to find the relationship between the results of (TM) model for the above mentioned preiods and hence estimate the current water situation in noth region. This is due to the fact the (TM) model is considered as a real indicator fo the changing of the values of water balance elements over times. In the study area, water balance has been estimated using (TM) model for every climatic station in the region. This was performed through using the jusitfied Thornthwaite water balance. The dataset was devided into two main periods namely (1974-1993) and (1994-2013) than the chances in water balance elements was determined and correlated with the results evaporation has cheged by around (+4%), the water feficit (+5%), water surplus (-1%) and water run off (-2%) for the period of (1994-2013) comparing with the period of (1974-1993) in RaswMuneef station. Whereas Mafraq station has experienced changes in the potential ecaporation and water deficit by around (+7%) and (+10%) respectively when comparing between the two periods, In Irbed station the percentage of changes between the two periods for water surplus and runoff were around (-15%). Conclusion: This has been proved by th precious studies which are related to the climate change.
Keywords: Climate Change, Water Balance, Evaporation,North of Jordan.

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Author :Abdulrahman M. Alshami
Discipline :Mass media

Uses of New and Traditional Media and their Potential Effects: An Exploratory Study on a Sample of Arab Citizens

This study investigates uses of new and traditional media and their potential impact in the age of instant information.
Methods: Four hundred respondents from different Arabic-speaking counties, aged between 20 and more than 50 years comprised the sample. A three- part questionnaire was used as the main research tool consisting of 1- basic information of the respondents, 2- 14 questions, covering average use of Social Media Networks (SMN), intensity, respondents' activity, their confidence in content published on these platforms, and their impact on television exposure. The third part: a scale consisting of 18 sentences to figure out attitudes of the respondents towards SMN as a means of instant communication, and its potential effects on: cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Data entered and analyzed by the statistical software SPSS (version 23). Results: Major findings showed that more than half of respondents used WhatsApp and Facebook on a regular basis, with average daily use of more than two hours. Respondents' activities included reading posts on Facebook and Twitter, sending messages via WhatsApp and watching videos and other materials received via outlets of SMN. It was found that SMN had an impact on their exposure to television thus, their attitude towards SMN was found to tend to be positive. Cunclusion: Social Media Networks achieve the concept of instant communication for their uses and that despite of their importance, respondents' confidence in what is published or broadcast on instant messaging systems is still not high.
Keywords: New Media, Traditional Media, uses, effects, Arab audience, Social Media Networks, Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter.

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