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Volume : 48 Issue : 1 2020

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Author :Saoud Jammal Saoud
Discipline :Political Science

The Reality of Popular Participation in Local Development in Algeria Evaluation Review

Abstract: This research paper aimed to conduct a critical review of the reality of popular participation in local development in Algeria by specifying the foundations of local development, highlighting the benefits achieved by popular participation in local development in Algeria, identifying the obstacles facing the popular participation and local development and their impacts on them, clarifying the determinants of popular participation success in Algeria, and introducing the researcher's recommendations and the conclusions reached.
The analytical approach was used to identify and analyze the obstacles encountered. The historical approach was also used to refer to the historical steps taken by the Algerian State to support popular participation. After thorough study and examination, a number of conclusions were reached about the impact of popular participation on local Algerian development, the most important of which was that popular participation led to political and security results represented by the legitimacy of the state and its projects and popular satisfaction, and that there was an exaggeration in overstating the administrative and political outcomes resulting from the transition to administrative decentralization in which popular participation was manifested as one of its forms, and that it has not yet been deeply established that popular participation is a constitutional right to the Algerian people.
Keywords: Popular Participation, Development, Effectiveness of Participation, Pillars of Development, Administrative Decentralization.

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Author :Hassan A. Al-Humaidi
Discipline :Psychology

The Role of Metacognition and Emotional Competence in Students' Adaptation with University Life in the State of Kuwait

Abstract: The study aimed at identifying the role of metacognition and emotional competence in students' adaptation with university life in the State of Kuwait. It also aimed at assessing the extent to which metacognition and emotional competence contribute in predicting such an adaptation. This dependent variable was tested against gender, students' major and their grade point average. The study used the descriptive correlative method, and the main sample consisted of 362 male and female university students in the State of Kuwait, who responded to the list of metacognitions prepared by ShisroWidison (1994) and translated into Arabic by Mohammad Abu Hashem (1999), the emotional competence gauge prepared by Nabil Zayid (2009) and the adaptation with university life gauge prepared by Yahia Al-Jinabi (2001).The results showed a positive relationship between metacognition skills and emotional competence and adaptation with university life in its academic, psychological and social dimensions. The study also showed a statistically significant and positive correlation between emotional competence and the overall gauge of adaptation with university life in all its dimensions. Moreover, the study demonstrated that emotional competence contributed in a statistically significant way in predicting the adaptation with university life; however, metacognition was not statistically significant. Furthermore, results demonstrated that there were no statistically significant differences with regard to gender between metacognition and emotional competence and adaptation with university life, but there were statistically significant differences between metacognition and emotional competence and adaptation with university life in favor of students with higher grade point average in comparison to students with medium or low-grade point average.
Keywords: Metacognition, Emotional Competence,    Adaptation with University Life.

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Author :Dalal O. Dalal - Amena Rezq
Discipline :Sociology

Sexual Abuse in Childhood and its Relationship with Both the Concept of Self and Sexual Compatibility between Couples in Later Years

Abstract: This study aims at revealing the potential relationship of sexual abuse in childhood on the one hand, and the concept of self and sexual compatibility between the spouses in the later years of marriage among a sample of married couples who visited the community care centers in Damascus. The sample of this study comprised (75) married couples. In order to answer the questions and examine the hypotheses of the research, the scale of sexual abuse, the measure of self-concept, and the measure of sexual compatibility between the spouses were used after verifying their validity and reliability. The research reached a number of results, the most prominent of which are the following : there was a negative relationship between sexual abuse on the one hand, and self-concept and sexual compatibility between the spouses, on the other hand; in addition, there were differences between the members of the sample on the scale of sexual abuse according to gender and the educational level of parents, and these differences came in favor of females and the individuals whose parents had a primary level of education. Differences were also found on the scale of self-concept according to gender, educational level, and age, and these differences were in favor of males, the individuals with university education, and the individuals of the age group (42-53). There were no differences among the sample of the research on the scale of trend of sexual abuse. The results showed that there were differences among the members of the research sample on the measure of sexual compatibility between the spouses according to the variables of educational level and age. The differences were in favor of individuals with university education level and individuals of the age group (42-53). However, the differences on the scale of sexual compatibility between spouses were not statistically significant according to the gender variable. It has been found that sexual abuse contributes significantly in reducing the level of sexual compatibility between spouses. The research concluded with a set of proposals related to the researcher's findings.
Keywords: Sexual Abuse, Self-Concept,Sexual Compatibility between the Couple, Adults.

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Author :Afaf Ansi
Discipline :Sociology

The Effect of Allowances and Annual Bonus Cessation on Changing the Consumption Behavior of Saudi Families A Descriptive Study amo

bstract: This descriptive study aimed to reveal the role of ceasing increments and annual allowances in the public sector in changing the consumption behavior of Saudi families, and to explore whether there are set plans for changing the trends of consumption and expenditure among the heads of Saudi families that are compatible with upcoming economic conditions.  The study followed the social survey approach with a targeted sample of Saudi household heads comprising (683) individuals of those who utilize Social Media, such as (Whatsapp, Facebook, and Twitter). The study reached a number of results, the most notable of which are the following: the members of the sample will have the tendency to rationalize consumption after the cessation of increments and annual allowances, by rationing utility bills (electricity, telephone, water) first, followed by rationing spending on clothes and finally children's tuition; rationing expenditure on food items ranked slightly below the previous commodities and services, while rationing on accessories, travel and tourism scored high percentages that were almost comparable. The results of the study also revealed a trend among the sample toward saving, as more than half of the sample (66.9%) indicated that they had an ongoing saving plan. The study results also showed a strong inverse correlation between the level of education and interest in spending on celebrations: the higher the level of education, the less attention to spending on celebrations and events.
Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Rationalization of   Consumption, the Tendency to Save.
 

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Author :Hafiza S.Albrashdiya - Said S. Alzufri
Discipline :Sociology

Electronic Extortion in the Omani Society: Proposed Strategies to Activate the Role of Educational Institutions in Controlling E-Extortion of Omani Youth

Abstract: The current study aims to investigate cyber-extortion in Omani society in order to come up with proposed strategies to activate the role of educational institutions in reducing it. The study adopted a qualitative approach where open individual interviews were conducted, followed by focused discussion sessions, and then codified group interviews. The sample consisted of 36 people, 17 of whom were male and 19 female. The results showed that college students are most likely to be extortied, while male extortion of females is the most common form. Sending a friend request to victims through social media is one of the most frequently used methods. The process of cyber-extortion goes through the following stages: demand, resistance, pressure, threat, obedience and repetition. 60% of respondents believe that young people's awareness of cyber-extortion is still insufficient, while 80% of respondents believe that efforts to raise awareness of cyber-extortion are sporadic and unregulated, reducing their effectiveness and increasing long-term consequences. Fear is the most important psychological consequence of cyber-extortion, while corruption of the values of society is the most important social impact, while the victim's cessation of productivity is the most important economic impact. Awareness campaigns are the best strategies to reduce the cyber-extortion of young people.
Keywords: Cyber-extortion, Educational institutions, Omani youth.

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Author :Shatha Rawashdeh - Ayed Taran - Saleh Kasasbeh -Taleb Masarwah
Discipline :Geography

Efficiency of Spatial Distribution of Health Centers in Karak Qasaba, Southern Jordan, Using the Geography Information System

Abstract: The study aimed to analyze the efficiency of spatial distribution of health centers in Karak Qasaba, and to determine its pattern and trend in the area in an attempt to identify to what degree was it compatible with planning standards in relation to access distance. To achieve these objectives, the study implemented the descriptive approach, the historical approach, and the analytical approach, using some statistical methods such as Chi square and Regression coefficient, as well as special analysis methods of the GIS, such as Moran Index, Standard Distance, Mean Center, the Nearest Neighbor Coefficient among others. The study showed that Karak Qasaba suffered from poor distribution and shortage in health centers in the urban communities affiliated to Karak Qasaba and that the spatial distribution of health centers was not compliant with the planning standards for access distance, and it followed a random and dispersed pattern of distribution that reflected negatively on the quality of services provided by the health centers to the community of the district. The study recommends establishing health centers in the areas that suffer from a shortage in health centers and taking advantage of the capabilities of GIS in the field of planning and development.
Keywords: Spatial Distribution, Health Centers, Geographical Information System, Moran Index, Standard Distance..

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Author :Nawaf Abo Shammalah
Discipline :Political Science

Role of Government Intervention in Achieving Structural Transformation in Arab Economies: Modern Applications of New Industrial Policies Analytical Study

Abstract: This study aims to analyze and assess the role of government intervention in achieving structural transformation in the economies of the Arab countries focusing on modern applications of New Industrial Policies (NIP) in their various horizontal, vertical and frontier aspects, in developed and emerging countries. The study also aims to highlight the most important practical rationales that dictate the government intervention to modify the structures of Arab economies and to ensure that they are directed towards more technological sectors and activities. In addition, the study aims to determine the methods of applying these policies taking into consideration the restrictions imposed by international organizations, especially the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The study concludes that achieving structural transformation and sustainable development in Arab economies requires government intervention and effective application of new industrial policy packages to create and establish new activities and new competitiveness in the economic structures of these countries following a clear criterion of selection based on competition rules, market mechanisms, productivity, contribution in growth and export, and improvement in the levels of integration in the global value chains (GVCs).
Key words: Government Intervention, Structural Transformation, Arab Economies, New Industrial Policies, Economic Complexity.
 

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