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Volume :19 Issue : 57 2004      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Criteria of Equalizing and Differentiation

Auther : Dr. Tareq Asad-AlAsad,

Criteria of Equalizing and Differentiation

Between Riwayah (Narration)

and Shahadah (Witnessing)

in Transmitting Hadith.

Dr. Tareq Asad-AlAsad,

Lecturer at The Humanities and Social Sciences Department, Faculty of Sciences & Arts, the Hashemite University, Jordan.

This paper aims at clarifying an issue of Hadith science, frequently used by Usoul scholars when they discuss the value of accounts reported by a single narrator. This issue is the aspects of agreement and difference between witness and reporting in regard to acceptance or rejection. In this paper, points from both Usoul and Hadith scholars’ various works were collected. The findings of the research are as follows:

-Both witness and reporting are source of knowledge, but witness is confined to what was witnessed.

-Both are accepted as a source of knowledge and of action too, as in the case of Allah (AWT)’s statement and witness about Himself.

-The report of one is accepted if he has the qualifications of the witness concerning rights: Islam, puberty, saneness, exactness, truthfulness, honesty, integrity, alertness and remembering.

-Its sufficiency for actions is proved by NASS (text), but it does not necessitate knowledge because the credibility of the reporter or the witness is not certain per se due to lack of infallibility.

-Obligation (wujoub) could be based upon the accounts of the one reporter and the witness, but truthfulness and falsehood in both still probable.

-Reporting or witness is not acceptable from a person proved to be evil-doer or insane, or a one whose integrity is unknown.

-Witness could be used to prove the authenticity of an account. In such a case, it is like a second report that supports another one.

The most prominent differences between a reporter and a witness are:

-A report is general, because it is a bit of legislation addressed to whoever addressable, while the witness delivered in front of a judge is directed to a specific person.

-Number is not required in reporting, but it is in the witness if required by the Sharia.

-Masculinity is not a condition for accepting reports in any case, while it is in witness in some cases.

-Freedom (Non-slavery) is not a condition in reporting, while it is in witness in all cases.

-Apprehension (Tamyeez) is a condition in the reporter’s reception of the report, while in the witness puberty is a condition at the reception and the delivery as well.

-In reporting, not in witness, ascribing( عنعنة) is acceptable.

-Change in the meaning of Hadith is subtler than in witness, due to the frequent ascription and changing of words.

-The witness of a liar who repented is acceptable, but not his narration out of precaution and protection of hadiths.

-One proved lie is enough for rejecting all narrat

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