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Volume :16 Issue : 46 2001      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Al-Quran’s Description of the Concept and Forms of “Fisq” (Deviation)

Auther : Dr. Shafi‘ Dhubian Al-Hariri

Faculty of Sharia and Arabic Language, Ra’s Al-Khaymah, United Arab Emarates

  • Fisq (فِسْـق) (deviation) is a Quranic term that means deviating from the commands of Allah and disobeying Him by neglecting duties or violating prohibitions. Fisq occurred in a number of the Quranic verses as a counter-term to Iman (belief) covering various concepts such as disbelief, polytheism and hypocrisy, in addition to a number of sins and all sorts of deviating from the code of Islam.
  • The concept of fisq is broader than that of “kufr” (disbelief). It could be applied to sinners, hypocrites and polytheists because all of them have deviated from the requirements of intellect and Fitrah (innate human nature). Fisq is of two types: fisq of belief and fisq of deeds.
  • Fisq indicating kufr is based upon its causes such as denying Divine Messages and Messengers, changing and distorting Scriptures of Allah, rejecting Muhammad’s (PBUH) Message, disbelieving in the Day of Judgment, following non-Divine Laws, using false trick to legalize what Allah has prohibited and disbelieving in the Glorious Al-Quran.
  • Fisq indicates Shirk (polytheism) when referring to polytheistic acts such as using arrows seeking luck, slaughtering or making devotions to glorify other than Allah.
  • Allah (SWT) has applied fisq to hypocrites because of their bad characteristics such as telling lies, breaking promise and oaths, betraying, severing what Allah has commanded to be joined, making mischief in the earth, forbidding good and commanding bad, allying with non-believers and abstaining from joining jihad.
  • Fisq, sometimes, is used to mean disobedience, such as: Israelites’ disobeying the command of Moses’ (PBUH) to enter the Holy land and their hurting him, committing sins during the state of Ihram in Hajj, doing great sins, ungratefulness, accusing others with adultery, insulting others by using bad nicknames or disrespecting others.
  • The results of all types of fisq are disastrous whether in this life: enemies’ domination, killing or captivity, destruction, confusion, doubt, restlessness upset, or in the Hereafter, severe punishment.
  • The perpetrator of fisq in belief will abide in Hellfire forever, while the destiny of the perpetrator of fisq of acts is left to Allah either to punish him or to forgive him. Only Mu’tazilites among Muslim theological schools said that perpetrator of major sins was neither a believer nor a disbeliever and that he is to remain forever in Hellfire.

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