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Volume :16 Issue : 44 2001      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Multiplicity of Truth Manifestations in Controversial Issues

Auther : Dr. Abdul-Hameed Bakri Ma’aaz

Lexically, truth has various meanings, among them is the undeniable proved issue. Terminologically, truth is the judgment identical to reality.

Second. Areas of Ijtihad (Islamic independent judgment):

a. Rational issues, which could be reasoned with no need of received evidence, such as proving that this universe is created.

b. Basics of Deen (religion), i.e. axioms of faith stated by revelation, such as Oneness of Allah.

c. Juristic fundamental issues, such as those issues that every Muslim must know, e.g. imposition of Prayer and prohibition of adultery.

Truth in such issues is only one.

d. Juristic “dhanni” (non-definitive) questions, all questions based upon non-definitive evidences, such as the Hadith of Reciting behind the imam in prayer.

Scholars unanimously agreed that such questions have been in disputation and that there is no blame upon mistaken in judging them, provided he is qualified for Ijtihad. Such questions are the area of our discussion.

Third. Does Allah have a specific ruling in each non-definitive question? There is disagreement about that. The most famous views here are:

1. Allah has no specific ruling on each non-definitive question, and every Mujtahid should exert his utmost efforts, considering whatever decision reached is the ruling of Allah for himself in that question.

2. Allah has a specific ruling on each non-definitive question, contained in non-definitive evidence, but the Mujtahid is not inevitably required to reach that specific ruling due to its non-definiteness.

3. Allah has a specific ruling on each non-definitive question, contained in non-definitive evidence, and the Mujtahid is required to seek it, and to follow what ruling he reached.

4. Allah has a specific ruling on each non-definitive question, contained in non-definitive evidence, and the Mujtahid is inevitably required to reach it. The third view is the more preferable and chosen by painstaking scholars.

Fourth. What is Mujtahid required to do? This point was clarified in the previous one.

Fifth. Is every Mujtahid in the detailed questions is right? Scholars have differing opinions:

1. Every Mujtahid in the detailed questions is right in his research and in the result of his research.

2. Not every Mujtahid in the detailed questions is right, only that one who hit the ruling of Allah in question under investigation.

3. In every issue there is apparent aspect and a hidden one. The Mujtahid is required to deal with the former, not the hidden one. Apparently, every sufficiently qualified Mujtahid is right. As for the hidden aspect, those who have reached Allah’s ruling are right, while the others are wrong.

In conclusion, we can say that every Mujtahid in the detailed issues is right to the best of our knowledge, because we are required to deal with the apparent aspect only. It is not our work to judge anyone on the basis of what Allah has decided, because we have no access to it.

Sixth. Does the layman have the right to follow the statement of the Mujtahid?

a. In rational issues and the principle

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