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Volume :46 Issue : 179 2020      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Desert Monumernts in Failaka Island and Their Relationship to the Seasonal Livelihood Economy - Site S88 as a Paradigm.

Auther : Dr. Hamed M. Almutairi

Study Summary: This study discusses the relationship of desert monuments in Failaka Island in the State of Kuwait with the livelihood economy based on marine fishing and agriculture, and the reasons for their emergence and extinction, through fieldword carried out by the Kuwaiti mission at Site S88, which is one of the archaeological sites located southeast of Failaka Island, in an area known as as-Sadd al-'Aaly (The High Dam). The site is a structure whose exterior from is rectangular, known locally as "al-Kubbar", and was built entirely with sea stones, while mud was used as a binder to support and reinforce its walls. It dates back to the first half of the twentieth century AD. The study examines the results of excavations at the site, the architectural layout of the building, stages of settlement, and movable and immovable archaeological finds discovered, in addition to the various uses of this particular type of structures.
The Goal of the Study: The study aimed to:
1 - Learn about the style of construction and architectural planning.
2 - Determine the stages of settlement the building had gone through.
3 - Classify the types of archaeological finds and their places of spread.
4 - Identify the relationship between this type of buildings and seasonal activities in the Islanc.
5 - Identify the reasons for their extinction.
Study Methodology: The study relies on the field methodology which was represented in the excavations at Site S88 and their outcome, sorting and classification of archaeological finds, statistical analysis of the data extracted, and comparison of the results to similar sites and equivalent archeological material.
Study Results and Conclusion:
In this study, it was concluded that the historical monuments far from urbanism were of utmost imporance as they were associated with seasonal livelihood and economic activities.
* The desert monuments were categorized according to thier use into three types; the first type: structures used for fishing andpearl diving. The second type: linked to agriculture, and the third type: used as temporary housing in seasons and occasions, inculding weekends.
* The study shed light on the change that occurred in these desert monuments due to the economic deserting traditional crafts and the consrquent transition to a new standard dur to the economic boom that occurred in the Kuwaiti society after rh export of oil, which resulted in people deserting traditional ccrafts and the consequent transition to a new standard of living dependent on public office jobs with their fixed income.
* This study concluded that these monuments were constructed outside the settlements, southeast and east of the island, and some near the coast of the sea, away from the urbanism that was centered on the western coast known as al-Zour, and far from the ancient settlements, and thus can be called desert monuments.
*It is evident in the study that the monuments of as-Sadd al'Aaly in southeastern Failaka differ in form and design from the structures in al-Awazem area, located in the eastern side of the island, despite they both belong to close intervals.

Keywords: Failaka Island, Archaeology, Herrtagem, Culture, Architecture, Agriculture, Diving, Grazing, Fishing.

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Dec 26, 2021

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