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Volume :36 Issue : 136 2010      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Integrated Environmental Assessment for Tubli Bay - Kingdom of Bahrain: Policy Analysis and Future Scenarios

Auther : Dr. Asma A. Abahussain - Maha M. Al-Sabaq

     Tubli Bay is considered one of the complex environmental systems which has a rich diversity. Given the concentration of human activities around it, along with urban growth and reclamation processes, its area and water quality have decreased, and led to the deterioration of environmental services provided by ecosystems therein. This research aims to present an integrated environmental assessment for Tubli Bay in the Kingdom of Bahrain and explore the best way to preserve it, as well as analyzing the policies that have been taken to preserve its environment, and identify its gaps, and then build future scenarios for the bay, showing its effects on plans and development programs.

     In order to achieve the research objectives, satellite images of the Tubli Bay have been analyzed for the years 1990, 2000, and 2006. It has been found that the total area of the bay decreased from about 12.47 km2 in 1990 to about 10.57 km2 in 2006. The analysis of the environmental situation using the DPSIR shows that the reclamation processes, waste disposal, and semi-treated sewage water are the most important pressures against Tubli Bay. In this study, matrices have been developed to show the different services provided by different ecosystems and the impacts of its degradation on human well-being. The Policy Analysis shows that in spite of the 16 political resolutions calling for the preservation of the marine environment during the period from 1941 until 2007, including 7 focused on Tubli Bay, all have failed to protect the Bay from degradation or decrease of its basin area. Moreover, the policy analysis shows that most policies are organizational, revealing clear setbach in the use of economic instruments. Those policies have focused more on the state of the environment and its impacts, rather on the driving forces and pressures which are the real roots of the problem in the Bay. Finally, four future scenarios have been developed for Tubli Bay, built on two major driving forces: population growth and economic development. It has been found that sustainability first scenario (Al-Dana) is the only possible scenario that preserves Tubli Bay environment future and allows the development in a sustainable manner.

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