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Volume :19 Issue : 74 1994      Add To Cart                                                                    Download


Auther : By: Dr. Maimonah Al-Sabah


A frantic mood has permeated Iraq to expand at the expense of Kuwait since the decline of the Ottoman State and Iraq’s emergence as a political entity. Iraq was not an independent entity but a British affiliation. Britain also protected Kuwait. Iraq boundaries with Kuwait were demarcated by an official convention between the Ottoman State and Britain in 1913.

Iraq exerted four sinned endeavors to swallow Kuwait, obliterate its political identity and annex it to its entity. Iraq justified its actions depending on inept and unreal allegations disregarded by logic, international law, history and refuted by Kuwait’s sovereignty as an independent sate internationally acknowledge as a member in regional and world organizations.

These Iraqi illegal and invalid justifications sat on the allegations that there were relations and ties between Kuwait and the Ottoman State. Iraq, purposely forgot that those relations were ostensible and only in name. The Ottoman State did not practise any power or authority on Kuwait. Even those ostensible relations connected Kuwait with the Ottoman ruler of Al-Basra but not Al-Basra as an Iraqi Authority.

In 1933, King Ghazi of Iraq exploited the Assembly crisis in Kuwait and called upon annexing Kuwait to Iraq on national basis for the sake of introducing administrative reforms for Kuwait as he alleged.

Afterwards, Nouri Al-Said called upon joining Kuwait to Baghdad Pact and be called for constructing an Iraqi port on Kuwaiti terrain.

Abdulkarim Qassim followed Nouri Al-Said. The two alleged that Kuwait was a part of Iraq, but he was thrown off at the hands of the Iraqi Ba’ath Party whom Saddam Hussain was one of its prominent members. He and Al Bakr, Iraqi Prime Minister, at that time, 1963 – recognized in an official agreement, the independence of Kuwait with its boundaries authenticated in 1932 convention between Kuwait and Iraq.

The fourth attempt adopted by Saddam Hussain was entirely different. He invaded Kuwait, occupied it and practiced barbarian and non-human crimes against Kuwait and its people. These atrocious crimes were denounced by world community; the friendly and allied countries confronted the Iraqi invasion and compelled it to withdraw after destroying its military arsenal. It was a good unforgettable lesson to teach the invaders that crime doesn’t pay.

In allegations towards Kuwait are invalid and have no historic background.

Iraq since its modern foundation aimed at annexing Kuwait to exploit its wealth and capabilities for the sake of achieving its covetousness of supremacy and hegemony. Iraq innovated justifications, artificialized means and aroused crises to carry out its expansion on the account of Kuwait. It was no difficult matter and because the two countries had interwoven and mutual interests, Iraq created and escalated a lot of crises with Kuwait and ignored entirely the bonds of neighbourhood, religion, nationalism, objectives, aspirations and the self-determination; Iraq ignored, too the relations with Kuwait which depended on cooperation and mutual respect. Although Kuwait tried hard and sincerely to consolidate cooperative and fraternal relationship and neighbourhood with Iraq, yet the respective Iraqi governments raised problems with Kuwait and escalated them so as to extort and obtain privileges from Kuwait.

The Iraqi allegations to swallow Kuwait appeared first under the slogan of nationalism then transferred into the false historical rights. These endeavors were raised by thuggery rulers who were ambitious of leadership and full of covetousness and who tried to cover the failure of their internal policy towards Iraq and its people¹.

The Iraqi allegations that, Kuwait was a part of Iraq always connected with Iraq’s political and economic problems and with military and diplomatic defeats due to its unbalanced and adversary foreign policy. In fact, whenever Iraq faced a problem, it began to raise the cause of Kuwait as a scape-goat and a way out to cover its failure and occupy the public opinion in Iraq. Iraqi defeats came from Iran and started since the early thirties of this century because of the dispites over boundaries in Shat Al Arab. “Saad Abad Treaty” was signed between Afghanistan-Turkey-Iran and Iraq in 8 July, 1937 to settle boundary disputes among these countries.

The whole story was not historical rights but the greed to loot Kuwait oil wealth and to expand Iraq sea front over the Gulf. These actions have caused political and strategic drawbacks in the long run, not only for the future of the Gulf area but also for the future of the whole Arab World system in particular and the international one in general². Although all attempts of Iraqi expansions to annex Kuwait had the same purpose, yet every attempt took place in different Arab and world circumstances which could not enable the Iraqi regime to achieve its targets and had ended with failure. With the exception of Saddam, who still exists the sinned Iraqi attempts to annex Kuwait finalized the life of its leaders King Ghazi, Nouri Al Said and Abdul Karim Qasim.

It is noteworthy that the Iraqi covetousness of the different Iraqi regimes to annex Kuwait came out of Arab rulers combined with the rulers of Kuwait with bonds of religion, nationalism, objectives and the same fate. These attempts also were connected with the independence of Iraq and its becoming a member of the League of Nationals and asserting its recognition of the boundaries with Kuwait on behalf of the green line signed in the agreement between the Ottoman State and Britain on 29 July 1913. This agreement was the reference to demarcate the boundaries which took place in 1932 between Iraq ex-Prime Minister Nouri Al Said and Sheikh Ahmad Al Jaber and the British Government as a mediator. The boundaries were settled as follows: the western section of the boundary is that part which leads from the intersection of Wadi al-Audja and Wadi al-Batin northward to a point just south of the altitutde of Safwan, The boundary line running thence eastwards passing south of Safwan wells and Jebel Sanam on to the junction of Khawr Azzubayr and Khawr Abd Allah where islands of Warba, Bubiyan, Fakan, Failaka, Uhah, Quroura and Umm Al-Maradim were left to Kuwait³.

The Iraqi recognition of Kuwaiti boundary came as a result of the delimitation of its boundary with its neighbouring countries and as a condition to join the League of Nations.

Again, it is recurred that Iraq endeavaors to annex Kuwait had and has no historical background and Kuwaiti borders are well documented in treaties, maps and agreements that are internationally recognized. Only those who deviate from the truth and reality rise doubt of those authenticated facts. Kuwait, all the time has showed its good will towards its brotherly neighbour Iraq specially after the vanishing of the Ottoman State and the foundation of the national rule in Iraq. It is well known that Sheikh Ahmad Al Jaber the ruler of Kuwait at that time did not hesitate to confirm and assert economic, merchant, social and education bonds with Iraq. In 1924, the first education mission was sent to Iraq. It was composed of 7 students graduated from Ahmadia and Mubarakia Kuwait schools. They enrolled “Al Imam Al A’zam Faculty” in Baghdad and other different Iraqi schools. The Education division of Kuwait (Ministry of Education now) relied on Iraq to borrow teachers and curricula implemented in Iraq. Kuwait, also, as an aspect of its trustworthy of Iraq depended on Shatt Al-Arab water to satisfy its need of drinking water. A network of buses and lorries between Al Basra and Kuwait was founded by Kuwait and Iraqi capitals to facilitate communications and transport between the two countries. Sheikh Ahmad Al Jaber made an official visit to Iraq to congratulate King Faisal-I on the occasion of the independence of Iraq and joining the League of Nations.

It is convenient to study the Iraq recurred covetousness to annex Kuwait since such studies can help to extract lessons and precautions. This objective study is not affected by what had befallen our beloved country and its generous people, it is not affected by the crimes committed by Saddam’s regime and soldiers, but it aims at demonstrating facts relied upon history. It is not propaganda, it is a scientific study based on facts. All other Kuwaiti studies that are connected with Kuwaiti statehood and boundaries and Kuwaiti independence have come to the same conclusion: Kuwait existence is registered and authenticated in maps, documents and agreements that cannot be denied. What is strange is that these documents preceded the foundation of Iraq as an independent country. The documents are not allegations or forgery, they are not artificial ones made to call upon rights which are not ours; they are facts and historic.

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