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Volume :14 Issue : 56 1988      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS OF THE PORTS OF THE ARABIAN GULF AND PENINSULA IN THE FOURTH HIJRI CENTURY

Auther : By: Dr. Abdul Jabbar Naji

   

            This paper cites many sources that deal with the commercial importance of the Arabian Gulf and Peninsula ports in the fourth Hijri Century (10th C.A.D) as land and sea transit links between India and China in the West.  Examples are given of the different merchandise and commodities shipped along these routes, the difficulties of sea and land hardships of transportation (such as coral reefs and pirates) and the measure taken to solve these problems such as security stations established, minarets erected and caravans organized.  The Arab travelers and geographers described the land and sea routes in the Muslin State in full detail that such descriptions are like travelers’ manuals that outline the activities of such area.

           The main part of the paper concentrates on the hardships that were faced by the merchants in the land, sea and river ports especially the methods AND amounts of tax and tariff levying.  It deals with the different ways followed to evade these taxes and shows how the literature does not give full details about the tariffs imposed, their amount and how they varied from port to port.

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May 18, 2017

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