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Volume :7 Issue : 25 1981      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

THE RISING OF THE FIRST SAUDI STATE (1745-1818) AND IT’S EFFECTS ON SOCIETY IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA

Auther : Dr. Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman

 

         The emergence of the first Saudi State came after the historical Diriyya Agreement of 1745, signed between Prince Mohammed Ben Saud and Shaikh Mohammed ben Abdul-Wahab, which brought about the political unification of all the numerous tiny entities of the Arabian Peninsula into a “Macro-state”.  The downfall of the First Saudi State took place in 1818 after the seizure of Diriyya by Ibrahim Pasha’s forces, thus bringing to an end seventy-three (73) years of political coherence in the Arabian Peninsula during which four Saudi rulers came in succession.

         The First Saudi State, since its establishment, has played a conspicuous role in the development of the Arabian Peninsula, and in the history of the Arab and Islamic World.  Its impact extended to all aspects of life, political, social, economic and cultural.

         Politically, it has welded together not only the fragment units of Najd, but has also expanded its influence into other areas, until almost the whole of the Arabian Peninsula fell under its control.  Its expansion threatened both neighbouring Iraq and Syria, and gave rise to national aspirations and sentiments, which continued to grow until the fall of Diriyyah in 1818.  It has also established the traditional system of dynastical rule, which is still functioning at the present.

         Economically, the effects were tremendous; not only has the first Saudi State succeeded in organizing the economical and financial affairs, but has also extended its services to the satisfaction of the basic needs of its citizens, through the application of the economic systems of the Sharia; a policy which persisted until the present day.

         As regards its social impact, the first Saudi State brought an end to tribal feuds and strengthened the feelings of national consciousness and obligations, through the encouragement of tribal inter-marriage, and the adoption of social security, in accordance with the teachings of the Sharia.

         The revival of Islamic and Arab intellectual legacy of the past was also one of the principal achievements of the State in the cultural field.  Literature and science were directly sponsored by Saudi rulers, who encouraged modern science, and the revival of the intellectual legacies of their Islamic predecessors.

 

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