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Volume :5 Issue : 20 1979      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

IRAQ AND THE SAFAWID EXPANSION (1502 – 1530)

Auther : Dr. Emad A. Al-Jawahry

 
Synopsis:

           The paper tackled the historical occurrences with a view to establish the fact that Iraq was an important center of the political power, which attempted to withstand the Safawid movement (1460-1501) and the Safawid expansion (1502-1530).  It is evident that the AK koyunlo (of the white Sheep) Sultans and rulers, viz, Ya’kub Bey (1478-1490),  Rustom Bey (1492-1497), Alwand Bey and Marad Bey (1497-1507), did undergo a bitter strife against Safawism, as a sectarian call, as a movement, and later on as a state.  That strife emanated from their principal seats in Tabriz, Baghdad and Diyar Bakr and it never came to a stop despite the fact that the last of the sultans was forced to migrate from Baghdad to Aleppo.  That last sultan attempted with the help of one of his followers Barik Bey to employ new methods for keeping Iraq safe from the Safawid menace but they failed.  Although the Safawids occupied Baghdad at the end of their westward expansion they faced immense difficulties and had to exert great efforts for the preservation of their power in Iraq.  Their presence in Iraq necessitated the confronting of several powers opposing their power, rule and principles.  It also necessitated the launching of campaigns against the Arab tribes, and against some of Arab independent principalities.

           Eventually they were forced to keep Persian protectorates in various parts of the country.

           If it is a historically established fact that the Persian presence in Iraq did meet with violent resistance in Baghdad, which caused it to collapse temporarily (1528-1530), it was preceded by another uprising by the Arabs of Ahwaz under the leadership of al-Musha’shi’i to the effect that the Persian military presence there came to an end.

           All that turmoil occurred during, relatively, short span of time (1508-1530).  This points to a significant fact, viz., the Safawid expansion in Iraq did confront manifest resistance from the Iraq is supposed by the political powers in league with.

           So the said resistance, which might generally be given national dimensions and perhaps doctrinal ones, was on the way to shatter the Safawid power in Iraq.

           Finally, those historical findings and conclusions led the present writer to confute Longrigg’s idea, viz., the Ottomans happened to decide to expand eastward together with their ensuing conflict with the Safawids, Iraq have remained an Iranian province.

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