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Volume :3 Issue : 11 1977      Add To Cart                                                                    Download


Auther : Pr Dr. W. Rimawi, Dr. M. Ezz El-Dean and Dr. J. Al- Sayegh


         Attempts of solving housing problems in the Gulf States and Arabian Peninsula by means of simplified classical methods will most probably fail.  Therefore, legislation of housing should be based on scientific methods, which take into account change in socio-economic conditions.

        In this paper we hope to develop methods of urban planning in general and procedures of housing planning in particular.  We will demonstrate that the use of systematic procedure, computers and mathematical models simulating behaviour of our socio-economic conditions could help us in understanding and analysing the dynamics and the interior structure of the environment.  The continuous reactions, between social and economical activities in the dynamic framework of the urban environment, are complex.  Intuition and guesswork are, thus, ineffective in urban planning.

         Our main purpose is to find new and a better way to understand and plan housing dynamics by constructing models that will help in putting forward integrated strategies on the regional level.  This will be a beginning for more exclusive models that will cover all urban system in the Gulf States and the Arabian Peninsula.

         The paper is divided into the following parts:


Part One (The Problem)   - Housing in the Gulf States and Arabian


Part Two (The Method)      - Systematic Planning.

Part Three (The Model)      - Simulation of Environmental Behaviour.

Part Four (Summary)        - Conclusions.

          Part one exposes the housing problem in the Gulf States and the Arabian Peninsula and demonstrates that the goal in housing is the same, regardless of the economic situation of each state and narrowing the gap in the housing market between needs and means.  This part, also points to the elements of housing cost and suggests methods of reducing the costs.  In addition, it discusses the housing regulations that are sometimes issued as reactions, which were not completely studied, or reactions, which reflect particular environmental situations rather than a long range complete planning.  These solutions will only succeed in making the housing situation worse.

         Part two reviews the development of the methods of housing planning.  It shows how advances in Biology oriented the housing studies towards the idea of the Organic System and the natural development as far as the methods of analysis and the city system itself are concerned.  Camillo Sitte called for a re-study of Medeval cities and the Organic System in it.  This was followed by Urwin’s idea of “Satellite Town” and Parry’s “Neighbourhood Concept” in the U.S.A.  Recently, Doxiadis attempted the construction of a complete model for Anthropocosmos.  Later, Schlager introduced planning models for land use, Lowry introduced a model for the Metropolis and Forrester suggested models for Dynamic Simulations.

         Part three treats methods of simulation of environmental behaviour and the role of correspondence models in representing social and economic systems.  This part, also, points to the fact that the inadequate statistics and information available in the Gulf States and Arabian Peninsula do not necessarily mean our liability to design models for planning.  Then, a dynamic model for housing is presented for Kuwait.   This model has built into it a continuos feedback system in such a way that we are able to adjust and modify parts of the system.  Thus, the system remains capable of reflecting any change in the environment.  In addition this part deals with the statistical data framework in Kuwait representing housing, social and political conditions in the last five years.

         Finally, it shows that Kuwait with its make up, formation and fast urban development gives a unique opportunity for study and analysis.  If we consider Kuwait theoretically as an advanced model and as experimental laboratory for housing strategies in the Gulf States and Arabian Peninsula, Kuwait are very significant and point to the failure of the closed classical procedure for housing.

         In spite of the increase in the per capita income and in spite of all the facilities given to the people by the state, the housing problem in Kuwait is still there and will remain so for a while.

         These facts point to the importance of advocating the open system in house, total participation, social planning and correcting the roles of the present Housing Organizations. We emphasize the necessity of constructing models for the environment to help us put strategies on the regional level as the beginning of a more complete model suitable for the whole Arab World.

         We can summarize by stating that in this work, we proposed a method and a procedure and we cannot claim that we reached a stage of giving final recommendations for the strategy makers.  Our aim was not to define ideal environmental housing standards but to plan the methodology of arriving at such standards. 

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