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Volume :3 Issue : 10 1977      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

WATER SOURCES IN BAHRAIN

Auther : Mohammad Ahmad Abdallah

         This study deals with water sources in Bahrain which are mainly subterranean coming through different hydrostatic pressures in the Eiocene period on the Arab Peninsula.  These sources were composed by the rain falling on the Peninsula during old geological rainy periods.

         The writer indicates that underground water exists within three layers.  The first is layer “A” connected with white limestone of central and lower Eiocene periods.  It is adjacent to the surface and its water is fresh and is exploited for agricultural activities.  The second is layer “B” which is the main source of underground water in Bahrain.  It exists within the brown crystallized limestone mixed with limestone structure of central and lower Eiocene.  The third is layer “C” which contains salty water and its rock are constituted from lime stone calcium.

         The writer states that the amount of salt in subterranean water differs from one layer to another and from one place to another.  This amount increases from the north-west to the south-east.  It ranges between less than 1500 parts and more than 3000 parts per million.  The degree of saltiness also increases from one year to another and that is due to the factor of subterranean fresh water pressure towards a submarine and subterranean salty water which is affected by the decrease of fresh water reserved in the bearing layers as a result of leakage and continuous consumption.

        The writer notes that methods of extracting underground water depended on natural sources like springs, submarine springs and surface manually dug wells until the Twenties of this century when the operations of digging artesian water wells began.  Since then, wells spread all over Bahrain and totaled more than 900 wells in 1970.

         As to the uses of water sources in Bahrain the writer divides these uses into three main categories.  The first is domestic usage which consumes 22 million cubic meters (12.1%).  This amount increases annually with the rise in population.  The rate of daily consumption of water for each individual is about 89 gallons.  The second category is the industrial usage which consumes 16 million cubic meters (8.9%) from which oil industry alone consumes the biggest share followed by aluminium industry.  The third category which has the largest rate of consumption is the agricultural usage.  Agriculture consumes 144 million cubic meters (79.0%) but this high rate of consumption causes a basic problem for Bahrain because a great deal of water is wasted on agriculture and evaporation which consequently increases the rate of saltiness of the soil.

       As to the future of underground water in Bahrain the writer indicates that there are several problems facing water sources most important of which are the increase of degree of saltiness, shortage of disposal in wells and the increasing amount of water assigned for each acre because of the salty soil.  He therefore proposes the following measures as a solution for these problems:

Conducting more studies on the volume of water reserves as well as on organization of consumption.

Decreasing the number of present wells and constructing new wells of certain scientific specifications.

Constructing highly effective network for sewer and disposal systems including maintenance.

Constructing water distillation stations.

Application of technical methods in irrigation.

Installing metres to place some restrictions on the quantity of consumed water.

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May 18, 2017

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