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Volume :2 Issue : 7 1976      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

ABDUL AZIZ AL-SAU’D A KING, A FOUNDER OF A STATE AND A PIONEEIR OF PROGRESS

Auther : By: Dr. Ahmed Tarbin


             In less than half a century, one man was able to found a state extending from the Red Sea in the west to the Arabian Gulf in the east, and achievement which fell beyond the capabilities of many great men during a twelve-century long history.

             In 1902, Abdul Aziz restore the capital of his forefathers, Riyadh, from his enemies Al-Rashid, the rulers of Shummar Mountain in the north of Najd.  Then, he succeeded in capturing the other districts of his kingdom to become a man of absolute power in Al-Ihsa, Katif, Hijaz, Asir and Toha’em of Yemem.  He quenched the rebellions, assured security for fear-stricken citizens and laid the foundation of stability.

             The wise policy Abdul Aziz adopted appeased the fears of his people, and although he didn’t acquire a modern education, yet he possessed what it is inevitable for an educated man to possess, namely common sense and correct estimation.  He was known for a sturdy religious belief, a strong will and an extraordinary courage, as well as for patience in conducting state affairs.  Abdul Aziz embodied all the powers of the desert, and it was he who said, “I am not more courageous than the others but when the battle reaches a crucial point, I can see through one glance what others can’t, and I do what they don’t”.  It was reported that he said “In most of the battles I used to be on the head of the vanguard, the thing made my men far more courageous than they would be if I were behind”.

             Abdul Aziz had to treat the demerits of nomadic spirit in his Bedouin society, and found that the religious ties and the adherence to the principles of Wahhabism were the means of creating a cohesion among the various elements of society who were engaged in narrow – minded loyalty that ignored collective patriotism and public spirit.  Therefore, he built the “Hujar” near mentals of Islam and to help them settle their disputes.  As a result, the Bedouins became “Brothers” in the religion of God after they were extremely hostile.

            Abdul Aziz depended on “friendship” in many of his relations, especially with the English who surrounded his kingdom from all directions.  And although fear never found its way to his heart, yet he tried to avoid any clash with the English, and he drew upon them in cursing his Hashimitt enemies in Iraq and east Jordan.  That is why we find his talks with the British government concerning the Palestinian cause characterized by a friendly appeal rather than by frank confrontation.  Moreover, he always took care to assure British, and then the United States, that his friendly relations with them encouraged him to present them with his proposals and recommendations, which were based on right and justice, to save the Arabs of Palestine from the injustice, exercised against him.


           When Rosevelt, the American president, met Abdul Aziz in El-Ismaeliyah port and asked him “What are we to do with those Jews?”  Abdul Aziz replied, “where did they come from?  Each one should return to his country”.  Rosewelt was silent for a while, then he said that the idea of Abdul Aziz was worth consideration, and he assured Abdul Aziz that he wouldn’t help the Jews against the Arabs.  But Abdul Aziz never thought that President Rosevelt would die before fulfilling his promise, and that Rosevelt’s successor, president Trueman, would support the Zionist solution to the end. 


           When the general situation in Palestine deteriorated in the wake of the vote held in the UN in November 1947 for the Division Bill, Abdul Aziz informed the American government that the Arabs were collectively intent on fighting to the last man in defense of themselves and their territories and honor.  It seems, however, that U.S.A. didn’t take this threat into consideration.


           Abdul Aziz supported the issues of Arab independence and his attitude towards Arab unity, the talks concerning which were held in the 40’s, can be summed up in saying that he agreed to participate in the proposed unity on the basis that it was a reactionary project in the face of Hashimitt Union projects such as Al-Hilal Al-Khaseeb Union and Great Syria.  Abdul Aziz estimated that Eastern Arab countries were in different degrees under the British influence, which was fading.  And he might have thought that his engagement in a union of an obligatory executive character would be in contradiction with the new progress he achieved through his initial agreement with U.S.A. concerning oil and military base in Dahran.


          In November 9th, 1953, Abdul Aziz died as a result of vascular insufficiency and heart failure after his presence had filled Arabia and transformed it from stagnation to activity, from hostility to intimacy and from tribal fanaticism to orderly. 

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