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Volume :2 Issue : 5 1976      Add To Cart                                                                    Download


Auther : Dr. Ahmad Ramadhan Shaqliyah

        This study deals with the geological development which Central and Eastern Arabia had undergone: that is the relief changes in land and water and the vital development (botanical, zoological and human) which these areas have witnessed throughout the long geological ages.
         The writer tells us that it is a scientific fact that three major factors underlie the final forms of geological structures of Central and Eastern Arabia.  These factors are:
a)      Endogenous processes, the most important of which are: curves and faults with their various form stages, endogenous movements giving rise to continents, and earthquakes, volcanoes and hot springs.
b)      Vital features, by which is meant the developmental stages of the forms of low and high botanical and zoological life throughout geological ages.
c)      Exogenous processes, as symbolized by erosion, disintegration, deposition and transportation.
         The writer divides the geological age of Central and Eastern Arabia into four geological eras and their ages.  Through this division, he provides us with valuable information about the geological changes which took place during every era and age:
I-  Achaean Era, which is divided into six ages differing with respect to duration and
     geological changes.

         a- Cambria     b- Ordovician c- Silurian    d- Devonian e- Carboniferous     f- Permian.

II. Mesozoic Era, distinguished by three ages which differ in respect to duration and changes in relief and vital features:   a- Triassic    b- Jurassic    c- Cretaceous

III. Cenozoic Era  (or of Modern life), divided into two stages differing with respect to duration, geological changes and, consequently, the number of ages each stage covers:

         1. Tertiary Era, divided into four different stages namely:

              a- Eocene    b- Oligocene    c- Miocene    d- Pliocene.

         2. Quaternary Era, divided into different geological ages, names: 

              a-  Pleistocene    b- Holocene.

       The writer believes that the geological studies undertaken in relation to Central and Eastern Arabia up till no have many positive and some negative aspects.  They have revealed many hydrological facts regarding underground waters, as well as the factors underlying the changes in relief features.  Such studies also help us to classify the sedimentary rocks throughout the geological ages and the various types of exploited soil.  The writer also believes that, since the results of many geological studies have not been declared by foreign oil companies, and since most of these studies have dealt exclusively with oil and gas, the governments of the region of Central and Eastern Arabia should re-consider the geological studies dealing with the region and benefit from their positive results, and should pay special attention to studies dealing with underground waters and endogenous and exogenous minerals because it is still possible to discover new minerals in the geological structures of this region and, consequently, variegate the sources of national income of its peoples. 

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Dec 26, 2021

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