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Volume : 48 Issue : 186 2022

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Author :Dr. Turki B. Alshammari
Discipline :finance

Efficiency Effect of Managing Working Capital on the Performance of GCC Listed Firms

Objectives: This study investigates the effect of working capital management efficiency on corporate performance as well as the determinants of the working capital for all non-financial firms operating in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Method: This study follows a statistical methodology whereas it mainly employs different types of regression analysis that fit the nature of the cross-sectional data such as the fixed-effect model, the pooled regression, and the generalized method of moments ‘GMM’ so as to confirm the robustness of the results, as these methods consider some limitations of the usual OLS method. This study uses financial data of all GCC non-financial firms during the period 2012 – 2018 for the six GCC countries; Kuwait, KSA, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, and Oman. It used the proper financial data that are required to accomplish the goal of the study such as the net working capital, as an indicator to the working capital efficiency, as well as two measures of the financial performance; the ROA and Tobin’s Q in order to corroborate the results. Results: The study findings indicate the significant effect of working capital management on GCC corporate performance, using the two performance measures, the ROA and Tobin’s Q. Also, the results show that the most important determinants of the working capital for GCC non-financial firms that positively affect net working capital are the previous level of net working capital, net income, long term debt, while firm size and market share influence working capital negatively. The results are similar irrespective of the employed statistical methodology. Conclusion: The study findings indicate the significant effect of working capital management on GCC corporate performance, using the two performance measures, the ROA and Tobin’s Q. Also, the results show that the most important determinants of the working capital for GCC non-financial firms that positively affect net working capital are the previous level of net working capital, net income, long term debt, while firm size and market share influence working capital negatively. The results are similar irrespective of the employed statistical methodology.

 
Keywords: ROA, Tobin’s Q, Net working capital, GCC, GMM.

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Author :Dr. Dalal K. Alsaif
Discipline :Criminal law

Recidivism in Kuwaiti Criminal Legislation

Objectives: This research aims to determine the applied criminal legislation in case of recidivism explaining with obligatory conditions that must meet the applicability and its results. Furthermore, it also seeks to evaluate the efficiency of the penal policy by Kuwaiti legislator facing recidivism. Method: The research was based on the analytical method of general texts that related to recidivism and its associated concepts. It also follows descriptive approach while reviewing recidivism in Kuwaiti criminal law and its policy countering this phenomenon. The research mainly counted on the position of Kuwaiti criminal law, and how to confront recidivism through general texts and rules including stipulated recidivism in specific texts. Results: The research results assured that despite some legislative deficiency, the policy of Kuwaiti criminal law facing recidivism’s phenomenon is extremely effective and successful. Conclusion: We concluded the research with a bunch of recommendations that called the Kuwaiti criminal law to amend some recidivism related texts, to enact new laws to reach clarity, and seriously address recidivism in order to limit this phenomenon.

Keywords: Recidivism, Recidivism in offences, Recidivism in crimes, Recidivism general texts, Recidivism specific texts.

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Author :Dr. Faisal M. Abu-Suliab
Discipline :political sciences

United States of America between the Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Guinea: A Comparative Study

Objectives: This study aims to define the regions of the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Guinea and compare the two regions based on their strategic importance, natural resources, and the US strategies toward them. The study seeks to answer a major question: Would the region of Guinea be able to replace the region of the Arabian Gulf as a strategic region for the United States of America? To answer this question, the study analyzes the factors that would qualify the Gulf of Guinea to be a substitute for the Arabian Gulf, and the challenges against doing so. The study hypothesizes that despite the qualifications of the Gulf of Guinea with respect to its geostrategic location and natural resources of oil and natural gas, it would be difficult for this region to replace the strategic importance of the Arabian Gulf. Method: The study relies on the comparative analytical approach in an attempt to compare the regions of the Gulf of Guinea and the Arabian Gulf, and analyzes the influencing factors that may help or hinder the Gulf of Guinea from replacing the Arabian Gulf on the US strategic map. Results: The study concludes that although there are significant factors that qualify the Gulf of Guinea to be a substitute strategic region to replace the Arabian Gulf, such as its abundant resources of oil and natural gas, and its significant geostrategic location, it suffers from security threats and challenges that make this region an unlikely substitute for the Arabia Gulf. Some of the most important challenges to its stability are the security threats, including overt piracy, kidnapping for ransom, terrorism, destruction of oil facilities, regression of oil production, ethnic conflicts, civil wars, instability of the political regimes in the states of the Gulf of Guinea, and the presence of the competing powers in this region, including France and China. Conclusion: The study concludes that although the strategic importance and the qualifications of the region of the Gulf of Guinea, it would be difficult for this region to substitute the region of the Arabian Gulf. This is because of main obstacles, such as the security threats, ethnic conflicts, instability of the political regimes, and the presence of the competing powers in this region, including France and China.

 
Keywords: Arabian Gulf, Gulf of Guinea.

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Author :Dr. Yousef M. Alfailkawi
Discipline :Media

The Kuwaiti Public Reliance on Television and “Netflix” during Corona Pandemic for Entertainment and Leisure

Objectives: Based on the theory of media dependence, the aim of this study is to find out the extent of dependence of Kuwaiti audience on watching TV and Netflix channel in particular during the Corona pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. The study aims as well as to find out the reasons for this dependence and the size of the impact of demographic factors on it. Method: A questionnaire of thirty questions was distrusted through a systematic random sample to collect information about the reasons of watching TV and Netflix during the Corona pandemic. The questionnaire also included questions about the demographic characteristics of the respondents. The approach followed is the descriptive and analytical approach using a sample survey methodology on the chosen systematic random sample of 548 Kuwaitis over the age of 18. Results: The results of the research indicated that reliance on television and particularly on Netflix by the Kuwaiti audience increased during the Corona pandemic compared to the period prior to the pandemic, and that the main reason for this increase is their search for entertainment and spending leisure time. The study has found that both age and the educational level affect the extent of the audience’s dependence on Netflix, while gender and the place of residence showed no impact on the audience’s dependence on Netflix. Conclusion: The main reason why Kuwaiti audience chooses to watch Netflix over other channels is the platform displaying various movies and series that suit the tastes and preferences of all viewers and thus helps the audience to have fun and spend their free time.

 
Keywords: Television, Corona, Netflix, Kuwaiti audience, Media.

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Author :Dr. Abdullah R. Alshebli
Discipline :Commercial law

Internal Audit Systems under Corporate Governance Regulations: A Comparison between Kuwait and New York Stock Exchanges


Objectives: The research aims to provide recommendations to the development of legislation relating to internal audit systems for listed companies on the stock exchange, so to positively reflect on Kuwait economic development in particular and the region in general. Method: The instrument was the comparative legal analysis between USA and Kuwait legislation. This research focused on the legislation in Kuwait and the USA pertaining to internal audit systems, since the US has long history and experience in the internal audit systems for listed companies on the stock market. Results: The research reached a number of results; the principle of “internal audit systems” helps the listed company achieve its goals, and that there is a lack of knowledge about these systems and their implementation by the listed companies, as well as the Capital Market Authority, which resulted in different opinions and disparity in commitment. Conclusion: The research concluded with a number of recommendations, inter alia the need to benefit from the experience of the NYSE in the field of “internal audit systems”.

 

Keywords: Internal audit system, Corporate governance rules, Listed companies, Capital market authority.

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Author :Dr. Meaznah S. Alazmi - Hend A. Alkhamees
Discipline :Educational Administration

Administrative Procrastination and its Relationship to the Effectiveness of School Decision Making during COVID-19 in Kuwait

Objectives: This study aims to identify the level of administrative procrastination among public school principals in Kuwait State and its relationship to the effectiveness of school decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic from teachers’ point of view, and to uncover the existence of statistically significant differences for the variables (sex, and years of service). Method: This study followed the correlational descriptive approach with an available sample selected from 780 teachers in government schools in Kuwait State, from 36 schools, primary, middle and secondary stages belong to the six educational districts. Results: The results showed that the level of administrative procrastination among school principals is of a medium degree, statistically significant differences were found for the sex variable in favour of males and the years of service variable in favour of 10 years or less, the effectiveness of school decision-making among school principals is of a high degree, there were no statistically significant differences for sex, years of services, and there is a statistically significant effect of administrative procrastination on the effectiveness of school decision-making. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a statistically significant effect of administrative procrastination on the effectiveness of school decision-making among public school principals in Kuwait State during COVID-19 pandemic.


Keywords: Procrastination, Decision-Making, COVID-19 Pandemic.

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Author :Dr. Mohammed A. Altuwayjiri
Discipline :Modern History

The Extent to Which Ideational and Material Concerns Were Driving Factors in Saddam’s Decision to Invade Kuwait


Objectives: This paper aims to theorize Saddam’s decision to invade Kuwait in August 1990, which had a huge and changing impact on the Middle East, especially the Gulf region. Such an act of aggression was not influenced by one or two variables but a consequence of inter-Arab politics as well as a product of the international environment, which was dominated by a nation–state conflict. Method: This paper is mainly based on secondary sources, such as books and academic articles, for theorizing the stated objective and analyzing the internal and external implications of the study regarding the invasion. However, using primary sources or competing or emphasizing narratives on the Gulf War is impossible due to the limitations of the article. Instead, many best-known sources are cited because these materials have been carefully selected to reflect the position and ideology of Saddam during this particular time period. Results: The dominant discourse espoused from Iraq from the end of the Iran–Iraq war up to the invasion of Kuwait was the demonization of Gulf Arab states, especially Kuwait. Towards this end, the regime cited material interests as antagonism for the aggressive foreign policy move but these were imbued with ideational overtones. Conclusion: Saddam did not expect the armed response elicited by his invasion. Material gains from the invasion would be realized in the long-term, not immediately. It is possible that that Saddam miscalculated the American response with hindsight.

 

Keywords: Gulf crisis, Kuwait, Iraq, International relation, Modern history.

 

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Author :Dr. Khaled M. Alfadhalah - Mohammed Alsagher
Discipline :Education

Attitudes of Students of College of Basic Education in Kuwait and Students of Bahrain Teacher’s College toward Corporal Punishment at Schools: A Comparative Study

Objectives: The study aimed to examine attitudes of students of college of basic education in Kuwait and students of Bahrain teacher’s college toward corporal punishment at schools. Method: The study followed descriptive comparative methodology, and applied a questionnaire to measure students’ attitudes toward corporal punishment. A sample of 381 students at the College of Basic Education and 241 students at Bahrain teacher’s college was chosen randomly. Results: Results showed that students of College of Basic Education had neutral attitudes toward using corporal punishment at school, whereas students of Bahrain teacher’s college had negative attitudes toward the same. In addition, the study found that there were statistically significant differences at the level of α ≤0.05 in attitudes toward corporal punishment among students of College of Basic Education attributed to sex, and in favour of male students. The study also found statistically significant differences at the level of α≤0.05 in attitudes toward corporal punishment among students of Bahrain teacher’s college attributed to sex, and in favour of male students, besides statistically significant differences at the level of α ≤0.05 in the means of attitudes toward corporal punishment between students of College of Basic Education and students of Bahrain teacher’s college, in favour of students of College of Basic Education. Conclusion: The implications of the current study shed light on the importance of enhancing the role of professors, curricula, and extra-curricular activities in clarifying the negative effects of corporal punishment on students, which may also lead to negative attitudes toward corporal punishment.

Keywords: Attitude, Corporal punishment, Schools.

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Author :Dr. Abdullah A. Al-Kharafi - Dr. Ahmad M. Albassam
Discipline :Geography

Geographical Distribution of Primary Schools “Boys” in Unaizah Governorate Using Geographic Information Systems

Objectives: This study aims to shed light on the historical development of primary schools for boys in Unaizah, knowing its current geographical distribution, and measure and analyze the spatial distribution of boys’ primary schools. Method: This study is mainly based on the analytical quantitative approach, the spatial analytical method, in addition to the historical method, and the descriptive method. It used the data of the Ministry, Education Department in Unaizah, and a number of statistical methods were used such as concentration guide, nearest neighbor, Pearson correlation coefficient and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Technology program, and Use SPSS to find out how strong the relationships between variables are. Results: The study revealed that there are 11 elementary schools for boys were built before the year 1390 AH, and that 24% of primary schools share one educational premise with other educational stages. The study also revealed that the distribution pattern of schools is completely random at a rate of 1.1 according to Neighborhood Connection Scale, and that there are 56% of the total primary schools that overlap in their residential range. 71% of the primary schools for boys are centralized in the middle of Unayzah. Conclusion: The study referred to the necessity of admission geographic information systems technology in educational planning and distribution of primary schools for boys in order to determine the appropriate places within residential neighborhoods, pointing to the importance of studying the urban ranges attitudes and population growth rates to provide better educational services, and taking into account the planning standards for services in order to achieve good education results in a healthy and educational environment.

Keywords: Spatial pattern analysis, Geographical distrbution, Primary education, Geographic information systems (GIS).

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Author :Dr. Abdelmotaleb A. Abdelmotaleb - Dr. Soud A. Alganem
Discipline :Sociology

The Effects of Learning Strategies Using Mnemonic on Improving Memory Processes, Ability to Solve Problems and Academic Achievement among Students at Kuwait University

Objectives: The main aim of the present study was to explore the effects of learning strategies using mnemonic on improving memory processes, ability to solve problems and academic achievement among students at Kuwait University. Method: This study used the experimental approach using the students psychology achievement test (SPAT), memory processes scale (MPS), and ability to solve problems scale (ASPS). The sample consisted of 248 students from Kuwait University aged between 18 and 47 years (M=21 years, SD=4.4 years). Results: The results concluded that there were statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group in memory processes and ability to solve problems in favor of the post-test score. There were no statistically significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of the control group in memory processes and ability to solve problems. There were statistically significant differences in ability to solve problems, memory processes and academic achievement between the experimental group and the control group on the pre-test، in favor of the experimental group. This was evident from the effectiveness of the learning strategies using mnemonic in improving memory processes and its various dimensions, and ability to solve problems with its three dimensions. Conclusion: The study concludes that the strategies using mnemonic are more effective compared to traditional teaching methods in improving memory processes، academic achievement، and the ability to solve problems among students.

Keywords: Learning strategies using mnemonic, Memory processes, Ability to solve problems, Academic achievement.

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Author :Dr. Ali H. Ebrahim
Discipline :Education

Level of Practicing School Laboratory Skills in Teaching Chemistry in High School and the Twenty-One Century Skills and Obstacles from Teacher Viewpoint in The State of Kuwait

Objectives: The study aimed to identify the level of practicing school laboratories skills and identify obstacles to the use of the laboratory in the teaching of chemistry in the State of Kuwait from the viewpoint of high school teachers. Method: The study followed the descriptive survey and applied the questionnaire as an instrument to collect data, and involved the study population of 235 male and female teachers. Results: with availability of the laboratories, the results showed that the use of the school laboratory came with high degree, though with obstacles makes using the chemistry one a bit less. These obstacles are the high number of students in the classroom, students focusing on the theoretical rather the practical side, and the short duration of the class for conducting practical experiments. The results also showed statistically significant differences between the average estimates of the sample members, due to the type variable in students’ assessment skills, in the chemistry lab in favor of the male sample. Statistically significant differences were also found between the average estimates of the sample members on the axis of obstacles to the use of chemistry laboratory attributable to the type variable in favor of females. Conclusion: The study recommends the need to encourage teachers to use the school laboratory by applying different teaching methods and preparing for the experiments to reduce the obstacles to the use of laboratory school in teaching chemistry.

Keywords: Chemistry teachers, Practicing chemistry lab skills, Teaching obstacles, High school, State of Kuwait.

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Author :Prof. Abdulaziz J. Aldegheishem - Eng. Abdulaziz N. Alzamil
Discipline :Urban Planning

Reasons of the Difference between both of the Expected and Actual Project Completion Periods: A Study of the Performance of Real Estate Development Companies in Riyadh City


Objectives: The main objective of this study is to identify the opinions of companies with regard to the real estate development; how companies manage their projects and what abilities they possess in order to achieve their goals as planned within the deadlines. In addition, the study attempts to find out gaps, based on scientific standards and theories by applying feasibility studies and a project management methodology in terms of planning skills and forecasting schedule to implement projects. Method: The study followed an analytical descriptive study method. The methodology that was followed consists of three phases: Data gathering stage, data analysis stage, conclusions and recommendations stage. Using SPSS for data entry and analysis, the study sample consists of 44% from real estate companies and entities, which are registered in the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Riyadh (27 entities). Results: The results showed that 18.5% of the companies were able to achieve a higher accuracy rate between the estimated and actual project times, while 81.5% could not, either with a shorter or longer estimated time. The results showed that there are statistically significant differences related to company age and axis of impact on the market and development. Conclusion: The study underlined the importance of knowing the time difference between the estimated time and the actual time to complete projects in real estate projects so that the damage to the real estate market can be avoided. The study suggested more future research, such as the extent to which project management in real estate companies can abide by the estimated duration of their projects, the reasons for the inaccuracy of feasibility studies, and the difference in the estimated cost from the actual cost in real estate development projects.

 
Keywords: Real estate, Development, Project management, Time management, Feasibility studies.

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