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Volume : 48 Issue : 185 2022

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Author :Dr. Sarah J. Almutairi - Dr. Hamad H. Albloshi
Discipline :political science

Public Policy Making in Kuwait The Northern Economic Project as a Case Study

Objectives: This paper analyzes the main factors that influence public policy and decision making in Kuwait taking developing the Northern Economic Project as a case study. It explores the influence of the political environment on the public policy vision in general and on the Project in particular. The study does so through looking the impact of Kuwait political system form, competition among political poles specifically among the ruling family, the merchants class role, besides the one of the execution and legislative authorities, as well as the freedom margin in influencing the process of planning and executing the Project on the ground. Method: Relying on a field study, we present results based on elongated interviews with people who have been directly involved in developing the Project. In addition, we relied on tracing the development of the project since its beginning. Six interviews were conducted with the Project supervising team. These interviews were open-ended and lasted two hours each. We also relied on officials', and Project in-charge people statements reported by the media. Results: The paper concluded that Kuwait political system form, competition among the poles of the ruling family, as well among merchants, and their lobbies in the parliament and the executive legislation authority are of a huge and negative influence on the Project, and are the most prominent challenges facing its development and execution. When compared to the other factors, freedom margin, specifically of discussing different government projects had little influence, though on the contrary to the others, it has a positive impact on Project planning. Conclusion: Study recommends employing the freedom margin in Kuwait to increase people awareness concerning the importance of the Project, as well as exchanging professional views about it.


Keywords: Public Policy, Decision Making, Political System, The Ruling Family, The Merchant Class, The Northern Economic Project.
 

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Author :Dr. Abdullah J. Alhajri
Discipline :Education

Kuwait Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Social Studies

Objectives: This study focused on examining the attitudes of secondary school learners in Kuwait towards social studies. These attitudes included three topics related to social studies' value, students' feelings towards this subject, and how difficult it is. Method: A 24 items questionnaire was designed to measure students' attitudes towards Social Studies distributed over 3 axes. The importance, feeling toward this subject, and the difficulty. The questionnaire also included the gender variable. Questionnaires' validity was considered, as well as its reliability. SPSS was used to analyze the collected data, including the T-test, to measure the differences according to the gender variable. Results: The study results showed the students do not hold positive attitudes towards social studies except those related to the national spirit development. The study showed no statistically significant differences in these attitudes and trends between males and females, except for pupils' feelings and conceptions towards social studies, where statistical differences were observed at 0.01 level in favor of male students. Conclusion: Based on this study's results, the researcher called social studies specialists to improve students' attitudes towards this subject. He specifically recommended that revising it in order to slash down the negativity and trends explained by this study.


Keywords: The social studies, Students' attitudes.
 

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Author :Nada S. Alyazidi - Dr. Waleed S. Alzamil
Discipline :Urban Planning

Policies for Conservation of Urban Heritage in Historical Centers Historic Jeddah Case Study

Objectives:The paper aims to review and analyze the historical conservation policies of 'Historic Jeddah', the Gate to Makkah, and to extrapolate the most important challenges and effects associated with these policies, in a way that contributes in the future in avoiding problems and maximizing the positive aspects. Method: The theoretical and descriptive approach was used to review the historical conservation policies of 'Historic Jeddah', the Gate to Makkah as a case study. The historical method was used to analyze urban conservation plans starting from the early 1980s, and even urban conservation plans issued by the Municipality of Jeddah Governorate. The study relied on survey data, government, and UNESCO reports. Results: The urban conservation policies of 'Historic Jeddah' are based on three main principles that include restoration, reconstruction, or new construction. The results indicated that most of the historical buildings need to be restored representing about 82% of the total buildings in the area, while 14% need to be reconstructed, and 4% are vacant land that would require new construction. Conclusion: Developing a comprehensive strategy for dealing with historical city centers, that takes into account the development of their own features, and proposing appropriate policies for them in line with the Kingdom's 2030 vision.


Keywords: Policy, Conservation, Heritage, Historical Centers, Historic Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
 

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Author :Hamad Al-Kayali - Dr. Saif Al-Maamri
Discipline :Education

The Perceptions of Social Studies' Teachers and Their Supervisors about the Employment of Current Events in the Social Studies in the Sultanate of Oman

Objectives: The purposes of this study was to identify the perceptions of social studies teachers and their supervisors about the employment of current events in the social studies in the Sultanate of Oman, as well as to identify the difficulties they face in employing current events. Method: The descriptive approach was followed by preparing a semi-structured interview consisted of seven dimensions: the importance of using current events in the teaching of social studies, their sources, the topics that can be employed in them, the criteria for their selection, how to deal with them in the classroom, and the difficulties of using them in teaching. After verification, the study was applied to ten teachers and five supervisors the study sample. Results: The results of the study revealed that the teachers' and supervisors' emphasizing the importance of using the current events in the teaching of social studies. In addition, there are a set of and sources that teachers can us in selecting current events. Furthermore, teachers and the supervisors mentions some necessary skills that require to employing current events. Also.  The results showed many topics that can be linked to the current event, historically, geographically and nationally.  In addition, findings showed little experience of teachers in how to deal with current events. As for the difficulties encountered by teachers in the recruitment of current events, they were as follow: low level of students' knowledge of current events, class duration, and the political nature of some of the current events. Conclusion: It is imperative to develop the skills of social studies teachers to employ current events and motivate them to do so.

Keywords: Current events; Social Studies, Teachers, Sultanate of Oman.

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Author :Prof. Kamel M. Rouibah
Discipline :Information Systems

Impact of Risks and Benefits on Intention to Reusing the E-Government Portal from End-users Perception in Kuwait

Objectives: This paper sought to measure the benefits and risks of the use, the demographic data (gender, age, citizenship, educational level), and usage characteristics (frequency, types of using e-services) on the intention of reactivating using the e-government portal of Kuwait. Method: The study has used an exploratory methodology, validated a predictive and causal model and designed a questionnaire to achieve the study objectives. It used a sample of 239 current and potential users of different age, and educational level backgrounds. Results: This study is the first that examined eight types of risks; (performance, security, finance, time, psychological, social, privacy, and total risks), and found that "psychological risks and loss of time" reduce the perceived usefulness. Also, perceived usefulness increases the intention to re-use the e-government platforms, while "psychological risks'', ``loss of time", besides "security and privacy violation" down slash the intention to use. Demographic factors and usage characteristics have no effect according to the study results. Conclusions: The study proposed a number of applied recommendations to increase using the governmental portal, and gave researching recommendations to investigate more potential factors toward reusing purposes.


Keywords: E-government, Risk perception, Perceived usefulness, Privacy risk, Psychological risk, Time risk, Security risk, Intention to re-use.
 

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Author :Dr. Ahmad S. Alanezi - Shahad S. Al-Shammary
Discipline :Educational Administration

Organizational Excellence in Kuwait University from Its Faculty Members Perspective

Objectives: To identify the reality of the availability of the dimensions of organizational excellence at Kuwait University from the perspective of its faculty members. Method:                  A questionnaire was used dealing with the subject of excellence and its four dimensions: leadership excellence, faculty excellence, service excellence, and research excellence. It was applied to a sample of 122 faculty members working at Kuwait University. Results: The degree of availability of organizational excellence and its dimensions at Kuwait University came to a moderate degree; the order of the dimensions of excellence according to the arithmetic mean was as follows: research excellence, followed by leadership excellence, then faculty members' excellence, and finally, the service excellence dimension. There were no statistically significant differences between the responses in gender, except in (research excellence), and the differences were in favor of males. There were no statistically significant differences between the responses of the study sample attributed to the academic level, college, and the years of service. Conclusion: The advancement of the rank of research excellence may due be to the university role in supporting scientific research and paying attention to the research aspect and setting plans and strategies for its development. The leadership excellence is significant to achieve organizational excellence requires the presence of distinguished leadership. The fact that the faculty excellence ranked third indicates the importance of raising the efficiency of faculty members as it will have impacts on different aspects in the organizational excellence. Service excellence coming last emphasizes the need to develop university services and provide them to beneficiaries using the best possible means.


Keywords: Organizational excellence, Kuwait University.
 

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Author :Dr. Abdullah J. Sultan - Abdulmouhsen M. Alfulaij
Discipline :Business - Management

The Impact of Health and Safety Precautions on Trust and Commitment of Parent and Non-parent Shoppers during the COVID-19 Pandemic Evidences from Co-operative Societies in Kuwait

Objectives: A research framework for the effect of customer evaluations of COVID - 19 precautions on customer commitment for co-operative society (CO-OP) shoppers in Kuwait is developed and investigated considering customer trust as a mediator and parenthood as a moderator. Method: A snowballing sampling procedure was used to distribute the research questionnaire using an online-survey platform. The proposed research model was validated via two-stage structural equation modeling in AMOS statistical software. Path analysis was performed to test the mediating effect of customer trust and invariance test was used to test for the moderation effect of parenthood. A sample of 1,105 CO-OPS shoppers in Kuwait was recruited. Results: The research findings confirmed a significant direct effect of customer evaluations of CO-OPS precautions against COVID-19 on customer commitment and a significant indirect effect through customer trust as a mediator. Most interestingly, the invariance test for the direct path was significant for parenthood as a moderator, which indicated that the effect was stronger for parents compared to non-parents. Conclusion: To keep shoppers committed, CO-OPSs must reinforce customer trust, especially for parents, by ensuring healthy and safe environment in their stores during the pandemic, and complying with the COVID-19 precautions recommended by the World Health Organization [WHO].


Keywords CO-OPS, Trust, Commitment, COVID-19, Health and safety.
 

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Author :Dr. Abdulaziz K. Abu-Khashabah
Discipline :law

The Extent to Which the State Companies May Recourse against Employees Following Their Negligence Caused Damages

Objectives: This study aims to look into the legitimacy of state companies (or what are sometimes called work sector companies fully owned by the state) resourcing against their employees for damages caused by the later negligence or carelessness. Method: The study analyses and examines the state companies' employees' legal position in the event of causing damages to their employers. The examination of such issue includes a discerption and analysis of state companies' employees' positions compared with their counterpart who works in the state departments and works in the private sector. The researcher sometimes supported his stands with ideas of comparative law. Results: The study outcome shows that the state companies' employees' legal position in causing damage to their employers is undetermined. However, the study suggests some solutions. Conclusion: The study concludes with the lack of a specific answer regarding the possibility of resourcing against employees by the state companies for damages during or caused by work. This in term is causing issues that require a conclusive solution so legal centers can accommodate the work relations for all parties in the state companies. The study also proposed its legal view for this matter.


Keywords: Contractual liability, Tort, Duty of care, Fit for purpose.

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Author :Dr. Nawaf S. Alanezi - Dr. Sara H. Alnufaishan
Discipline :Education

Foreign non-Arab students' Level of Adaption at Kuwait University and its Relation to Some Demographical Variables A Sociological Study

Objectives: This study aims to identify foreign non-Arab students' perceptions of their ability to fit in academically, socially, and culturally during their study stay at Kuwait University. Method: The study follows a descriptive quantitative approach and uses a questionnaire prepared specifically for this purpose. This quantitative study is applied to a non-random sample consisted of 96 non-Arab foreign students, in order to determine their perceptions of their adaptability academically, socially, and cultural. Data was entered into the SPSS program to find out results. Results: The study reveals that foreign students' perceptions are moderate in term of their ability to adapt, and shows that foreign students experience great difficulties to form friendships with Kuwaiti students. In addition, the study unfolds significant statistical differences attributed to the gender variable for the favor of females, while there is no statistically significant differences linked with the demographic variables in the rest of the study axes. Conclusion: The study concludes with set of recommendation that would help foreign students socially integrate into university environments, the most important of these recommendations is raising awareness in these academic environments about the difficulties they face as expatriates and students.


Keywords: Adaptation, Foreign students, Cultural sensitivity, University environment, Minority rights, Kuwait University.
 

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Author :Dr. Fahed A. Abdulrahman
Discipline :law

The Effects and Repercussions of the Iranian Nuclear Program on the Arab Gulf States' Security in Light of Varied Gulf Positions toward Iran

Objectives: The study aimed to review the reality of the Iranian nuclear program, in terms of its origin, development and future directions, in addition to examining some of the provisions of international agreements and treaties related to nuclear activities. The study also aimed to explain the reality of Iranian-Gulf relations, and try to develop proposed scenarios towards unifying the Gulf action with regard to the Iranian nuclear file and its implications on the security of the Gulf region countries. Method: The study adopted the historical analytical approach as it dealt with an illustrative account of the developments witnessed in the Arab Gulf region since the beginnings of the Iranian nuclear activities, while the analytical approach covered an analytical presentation of the position of the international community and its institutions towards the Iranian nuclear program, and the international treaties and agreements that sought to control this the program. Results: The results of the study showed a variation in the Arab Gulf states' positions in their relations with the Islamic Republic of Iran, and implications of this difference in attitudes to reach a unified and strong position towards Iran's nuclear file and its security effects on the countries of the region. The outcomes showed variable scenarios for the Gulf countries to deal with the Iranian nuclear program to reduce its security impacts and repercussions in terms of economic, environmental, strategic and military aspects. The study recommended the necessity of the earnest and unified Gulf countries to strive to build one balanced and compatible strategy dealing with the Iranian side, under the umbrella of the Gulf Cooperation Council. The study also underlined the importance of keeping all options valid for the Arab Gulf states in dealing with Iran. Conclusion: The enhancing factor that contributed to the continuation of Tehran's expansion wheel is attributed to the dispersion of the positions of the Gulf Cooperation Council states and the variation in the positions of its individual countries towards dealing with Iran.


Keywords: Iranian Nuclear Program, Iran, Arab Gulf States, Security.
 

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Author :Dr. Maryam A. Almazkour - Hend A. Alkhamees
Discipline :Educational Administration

The Degree to Which Kuwait School Principals Have Achieved the Dimensions of Change Leadership from the Teachers' Point of View

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the degree to which Kuwaiti school principals achieved the dimensions of change leadership from the teachers' point of view, and to reveal the existence of statistically significant differences for the two variables: educational stage, and school district. Method: This study followed the descriptive survey approach through the questionnaire. It included a set of demographic variables and five dimensions to lead the change. Validity and reliability measures were taken for this scale. SPSS (version 25) software was used. The descriptive and inferential statistic ANOVA test was used. In general, the results of the study revealed that school principals in the state of Kuwait achieved a high degree of change leadership dimensions. A sample of 449 teachers from the primary, middle and secondary stages, and from the six school districts was randomly selected. Results: The results of the study showed that the degree to which school principals in Kuwait achieved the dimensions of change leadership was generally high, as it ranked first after building human relations dimension, while solving problems and making decisions dimension came last. Also, there were statistically significant differences attributed to the variable of the educational stage in favor of the intermediate stage, and statistically significant differences related to the variable of the educational region in favor of Hawalli and Al-Ahmadi areas. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the importance of involving teachers in the change process and developing them to contribute in the success of change process, in addition to providing training courses for school principals on change leadership.

Keywords: School administrators, Dimensions of change leadership, Public education
 

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Author :Batool A. Hendal - Pro. Fahad A. Alkhezzi
Discipline :Sociology

Kuwait University Students' Evaluation of the e-learning Experience during the Coronavirus Pandemic

Objectives: This study aims at exploring Kuwait University students' evaluation of the online learning experience during the Covid-19 pandemic closure of schools and universities in Kuwait. Method: An online survey was used to collect data from a sample of 851 KU students during the summer semester 2019/2020. Results: The results showed mild positive attitudes toward the e-learning experience with no statistically significant difference between males and females, nor between the year of study. Yet there was statistically significant difference between students' attitudes between humanities and scientific colleges in favor of humanities. Several challenges were raised by students, mainly technical issues, course and class issues, faculty performance, physical and psychological health, besides interaction issues. Conclusion: Several recommendations were raised by students to improve the e-learning experiences, including the need to develop the faculty preparation, to employ diverse evaluation tools without depending mainly on exams, besides the need to conduct the practical activities and experiments in labs.


Keywords: E-learning, Distance Learning, Kuwait University, Faculty competence, Covid-19.
 

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