Journal of Law

Current Issue

Volume : 47 Issue : 182 2021

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Author :Dr. Enas M. Sarg
Discipline :Sports Journalism

Identity in the Press Coverage of the Gulf Football Cup Tournament: A Comparative Analysis to "Al-Ayam" and "Al-Rai" Websites

Objectives: The study aims to measure the relationship between the identity as a political variable and the press coverage as a media variable.
Method: The study is an analatical descriptive dpended on surveying, comparative and content analysis approaches. It used identity-building theory as a theoretical framework, and the Kuwiait Al-Rai and Bahraini Al-Ayam websties as a sample. All the news published throughout the championship period were analyzed.
Results: The two sites were concerned with marketing the collective identity of the participating teams as well as the individual identity of the players without focusing on promoting the identities of the participating countries. Bossting the moral spirit was the most prominent feature of promoting the individual and collective identity, while news coverage were the most important forms used in press coverage. There were significant differences between the two sites in covering the events of the championship in five hypotheses, while there were no differences in one only.
Conclusion: The news coverage in the two websites focused more on the two sports teams than on promoting the country's national identity in the poltical, social and cultural dimentions.

Keywords: Gulf Football Cup, Identity, Sports Coverage, Websites.

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Author :Dr. Saud F. Alanezi
Discipline :Curriculum and Teaching Methods

The Level to which Curricula Quality Met the University Strategic Objectives and the Needs of Students as well as The Community According to the Faculty Personnel at Shaqra University

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the level to which curricula quality realized the university strategic objectives and met the needs of students and community from the perspective of the faculty personnel at Shaqra University.
Method: The study conducted the descriptive and analytical method as seen most appropriate for the objectives of the study. The study tool was applied on (50) members of the teaching personnel randomly selected from different faculties.
Results: Results revealed that the strategic objectives of Shaqra University were poorly realized by the university curricula, and the needs of students and community were also moderately met.
The results also showed statistically significant differences at (a= 0.05) from the perspective of the teaching personnel concerning achieving the strategic objectives through the curricula. Those differences were attributed to the variable of their academic degree, in favor of higher academic degrees of professors and associate professors, while such statistically significant differences were not detected at meeting the needs of students and community concerning the variables of sex, academic level or years of experience.
Conclusion: The researcher presented many recommendations; the most important is the need to work on developing the university curricula in the light of the strategic objectives of Shaqra University.

Keywords: University curricula, Strategic objectives, Shaqra University, Teaching personnel.

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Author :Dr. Abdullah R. Alshebli - Bader N. Alhusaini
Discipline :International Economic Law

The Impact of JASTA Act on The Economic Interests of GCC Countries in the USA

Objectives: Due to the importance JUSTA Act has and due to its sensitivity toward all political, social, and economic variables in GCC countries, this paper has raised few questions among which is: what is JUSTA Act and what are its details? What are the potential dangers it poses on the GCC countries foreign investments? Thus, this paper aims to address the previous questions.
Method: There is some ambiguity about JASTA Act and the scope of its implementation. However, to clear its different features and aspects, the study has followed the analytical descriptive method to the American legislative law texts in a logic scientific style. And, to do so, the paper has described, identified, and analyzed JUSTA Act with all its different aspects and dimensions. This Act raises legal issues that worth being addressed in order to find suitable solutions.
Results: The study came up with a number of results among which is that it is no longer accepted to say that states should hold to its external sovereignty to turn the lawsuit down against USA courts especially when it has to do with external terrorism. These states should hold to its defense before such courts.
Conclusion: This paper concluded with some recommendations; affected countries should resort to the American law to annul JUSTA Act as it contradicts the international law. The author also advises the Gulf countries to work on employing legal, political, and economic expertise to prevent any harm that JUSTA Act can cause to the Gulf interests.

Keywords: JASTA Act, GCC countries, Sovereign.

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Author :Dr. Fatima H. Dashti
Discipline :Financial Public Law

Principles of The Public Budget in Limiting Corruption: The Kuwaiti Case

Objectives: This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between the principles of public budget and corruption through the legal instruments of the Constitution (financial affairs) and decree law No. 31/1978 on the rules of the public budget preparation and controlling its implementation and the final account.
Method: The methodology of the research revolves around the descriptive approach in showing the principles of the budget as stated in the financial laws applied in the State of Kuwait. The study also adopted the analytical approach to identify the effectiveness of this application and the commitment extent to the exceptions permitted by the legislator without exaggeration or repetition.
Results: There is an inevitable relationship between corruption and the good application of the principles of the budget and the commitment to the legislator's exceptions. We have concluded that failure to apply the instructions of the Ministry of Finance when preparing and implementing the budget is one of the reasons for corruption in estimating the general budget in the State of Kuwait.
Conclusion: Adherence to the principles of the budget and its proper implementation are essential to eradicate corruption. It works through the collaboration of the bodies responsible for preparing, implementing, and controlling the budget, each within the cycle and the specializations assigned to it.

Keywords: Budget principles, Estimates, Revenues and expenditures, State Audit Bureau, Final account, Corruption.

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Author :Dr. Mejbel Th. Al-Saidi
Discipline :Financial Accounting

Ownership Structure and Firm Performance of Kuwaiti Non-Financial Listed Firms

Objectives: This study aims to examine the relationship between ownership structure and firm performance in the framework of agency theory.
Method: This study tested the linear relationship between ownership structure and firm performance, the non-linear relationship, the impact of ownership composition, and endogeneity and causality issues by using a dataset of 100 non-financial listed firms from 2009 to 2018 in Kuwait Stock Exchange (KSE). Firm performance is measured using Tobin's Q and ROA.
Results: The study found that ownership concentration positively impacts firm performance, which supports the monitoring hypothesis. In terms of ownership composition, the study found that only government ownership positively impacted firm performance, while other large shareholders had an insignificant impact on firm performance. However, after controlling for the endogeneity problem, the study found that ownership concentration negatively impacts firm performance not the other way around, and no evidence confirmed the non-linear relationship in Kuwait.
Conclusion: This study concluded with highlighting its importance and value that it can be very useful for Kuwaiti regulators-namely, Capital Markets Authority, Central Bank, and Ministry of Trade Kuwaiti-in determining the importance of ownership structure and how to protect small shareholders. In addition, Kuwait listed firms should give more consideration for the ownership composition because not all large shareholders positively impact firm performance. Moreover, the results of this study are important for academics studying the impact of ownership structures and may give them good guidelines for any further studies. However, the results of this study are limited by the sample used, which is relevant for the Kuwaiti environment only. Results may differ for developed and developing countries. Thus, it is difficult to generalize to other countries.

Keywords: Structure, Ownership concentration, Firm performance, Kuwait.

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Author :Dr. Maysoon A. Dakhiel
Discipline :Curriculum and Teaching Methods

Sources of Anxiety among Saudi Female EFL Student Teachers during Their Practicum

Objectives: The present study investigates the sources that arouse anxiety among Saudi female EFL student teachers during their practicum.
Method: It adopted the analytical descriptive approach with a sample that comprised 22 female students enrolled in a Teaching Practicum course in the Faculty of Education at the University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A five-points Likert-type questionnaire with four domains was developed by the researcher and administered to the participants to figure out the sources of anxiety during practicum.
Results: Descriptive analysis of the responses to the questionnaire showed four sources of anxiety, including cooperating school, mentors, student teachers, and foreign language teaching instructions. Findings also revealed that the domain related to student teachers constituted the highest level of anxiety, whereas the domain of sources related to the mentor had the least effect on the participants' anxiety level.
Conclusion: The researcher suggests important procedures to reduce student teachers' anxiety during their practicum, such as providing more support by mentors and cooperating teachers, increasing the number of follow-up visits, and affording enough time to student teachers during field visits.

Keywords: Anxiety, student teachers, practicum, EFL.

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Author :Prof. Wajeha Th. Al-Ani - Hagir M. Al-Saadi
Discipline :Education Sociology

Awareness Level of Sultan Qaboos University Students Regarding Economy Diversification Styles and Consumption Rationalization in Supporting Sultanate of Oman National Economy

Objectives: The study attempts at describing and analyzing consumption rationalization being one of the pillars in the economic and social growth and an essential perquisite to support any country's national economy as well. Considering these factors, this study investigates students' awareness of economic diversifying methods and consumption rationalization at Sultan Qaboos University.
Method: A descriptive study approach was conducted using a data collection questionnaire. It included two questions in order to address methods of economic diversity, and students' consumption determinants, in addition to two main focus points: supporting the national economy, and rationalization of consumption and expenditure. The study sample included 150 students of different Scientific and Humanities Faculties.
Results: The results of the study showed that university students have high level of awareness regarding supporting the national economy with a mean of 4.07 as well as in consumption and expenditure rationalization with a mean of 3.92. In the axis of supporting the national economy, the T-test results showed that there are significant differences in favor of females and the third academic year students and younger students.
Conclusions: The study concluded with a number of recommendations, the most important of which is holding workshops and seminars for university students on how to rationalize consumption and diversify sources of income for both the individual and society.

Keywords: Rationalization of expenditure, Economic diversity, Youth awareness, Supporting national economy.

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Author :Dr. Aly A. Ghazy
Discipline :Modern and Contemporary History

Significance of Egyptian Archives for Writing The History of Syria, The Gulf and The Arabian Peninsula during The First Half of The 19th Century

Objectives: This study aims at shading lights on the documents of the Egyptian Archives in the first half of the 19th century in order to clarify how important they are for writing the history of Arabs in General and the Arabian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula in particular. This study does not aim at reviewing the contents of the archives for that needs writing books not a mere study.
Method: The study is based on a descriptive and analytical methodology, following the historical research method from the oldest to the most recent. The study begins with defining the concepts of document, documentation and the importance of historical documents besides their role in writing history. The study then reviews the historical development of Documentary Archives in Egypt down to some classifications serving the history of the region subject of the study during the specified historical period, like Muhafiz Diwan Bahir Bra, Diwan Al-Ma'ia Snya (Arabic and Ottoman Turkish), Diwan Al-Jihadia, Diwan Al-Khidawi, DIwan Abdeen, Al-sham, Al-Hijaz, Mutafariqat, and British Documents. Copies of these are kept in the National Archives in Cairo. Finally, it reviews the efforts made by those who collected and published some of those documents: Orders and Letters from Aziz of Masir Mohammed Ali, Statement of Documents of Al-Sham and the Means to understand them and to make clear the intentions of Ibrahim Pasha, Main Documents from the Modern History of Lebanon (1517-1920), the Egyptian Army and Conquering Acre (1831-1832), From the Documents of the Egyptian Archives in the History of the Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula and From the Documents of the Arabian Peninsula in the Modern Age.
Results: The study assured the importance of the Egyptian Archives for writing the history of the Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula during the first half of the 19th century.
Conclusion: The study confirms that the Egyptian archive documents represent an important source for the history of the Levant region, the Arabian Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula in the first half of the nineteenth century AD.

Keywords: Egyptian Archives, Arabian Gulf, Arabia, Documents, the Nineteenth Century.

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Author :Prof. Elghali Benhachoum
Discipline :Arabic Language

The Scientific Communication between Morocco and The Mashreq: Alayachi as an Example

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to highlight the importance of Alayachi travel to Hijaz in introducing the social, economic and architectural conditions, that all abound in The Arabian Peninsula (Arabia). The study also seeks to investigate the contribution of Abi Salem Alayachi in enhancing the intellectual and cultural communication between the Mashreq countries and Morocco. In addition, this study aims at investigating channels of communication between Morocco and The Arab Mashreq (The Levant) as well as the role of Moroccan trips in the historiography of The Arabian Peninsula.
Method: In this study, researcher opted for the descriptive and analytical method appropriate to the type of the study that suits the speech in Travel Literature.
Results: This research study showed that:
-  The communication between the Arab Mashreq (The Levant) and Morocco has contributed in enhancing the relationship between them.
-  The Moroccan trips to Arabia were essential source of Hijaz history and its economic, social, architectural, scientific and religious conditions.
-  The traveler Abi Salem Alayachi contributed in providing anthropological statements through describing the demography of the Arabian Peninsula.
-  Alayachi also provided his statements about economic and commercial transactions in the region.
Conclusion: The factors of the intellectual and cultural communication between The Levant and Morocco, the most important of which were the pilgrimage journeys in general and the Alayachi trip in particular, formed an important source of the history of Alhijaz and its economic, social, architectural, scientific and religious conditions, and had largely contributed in the Arabia's historiography during the 17th century A.D (11th century A.H). Moreover, Abi Salem Alayachi was able to provide anthropological statements as he described the Arabia's demographic specificity, its customs and traditions. He also described the economic and commercial activity practiced that time. All of these aspects and reasons made of Alayachi's Travel an important source in achieving a cultural communication between the two parts of the Islamic world.

Keywords: Communication, Mashreq (The Levant), Morocco, Travel, Alayachi, Trip.

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Author :Prof. Muneer A. Karadsheh - Amal N. Al-Hashemi
Discipline :Sociology

Health Challenges Elderly Face in the Governorate of Muscat: Descriptive Study

Objectives: The aim of this study is to broadly explore and identify the key health challenges the elderly face in the Governorate of Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. It also attempts to determine the relative significance and impact of a set of independent variables on the health after controlling and isolating the impact of the rest of the variables.
Method: This study uses social surveying to the study sample through a questionnaire applied on 2332 elderly between 2017 and 2018 in the city of Muscat.
Results: The study came up with a group of outcomes the most important of which is the challenges represented in the feeling and suffer the elderlies have due to the use of pain killers and sleeping pills. The study also showed statistically significant differences in the health challenges that the elderlies face in terms of their gender.
Conclusion: The study eventually found that the "number of children" and "income adequacy" were the main independent variables that explain the differences in the elderlies' health conditions.  

Keywords: Health challenges, Elderlies, Gender, Income, Muscat.

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Author :Dr. Turki B. Alshammari
Discipline :Banks and Financial Institutions

Comparing the Performance and Risk of Conventional and Islamic GCC Banks

Objectives: This study aims at investigating differences in performance and risk of both conventional and Islamic banks in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Kuwait, KSA, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, and Oman) during the period of 2012-2018.
Method: This study employs two main types of statistical techniques. One relates to finding statistical differences in performance and risk of all GCC banks (Islamic and conventional), and the other method relates to using the ordinary least squares (OLS) as well as the generalized method of moments GMM, that takes into account some statistical measures that the OLS lacks. As a sample, the study took all GCC working banks (both conventional and Islamic) in Kuwait, KSA, Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, and Oman during the period 2012 - 2018. In order to achieve the study objective, the financial data used to measure the performance were the return on asset ROA and the return on equity ROE. The study also employed two types of banking risk measures so as to confirm the validity of the results.
Results: The study finds that unlike what is declared by a lot of banking industry-interested, profitability in conventional GCC banks exceeds the one of their Islamic counterparts with a high significance of (less than 1% in ANOVA test). Results also revealed that risks of Islamic banks are significantly higher than of their conventional ones (less than 1%). Moreover, the statistical analysis showed that the most important factors that influence banking risks for both banking systems are bank capital, bank size, loan volume (and profitability only in Islamic banks). And these results partially differ according to the statistical method used.
Conclusion: The study revealed that GCC conventional banks outperformed the Islamic banks in terms of profitability, and that the banking risks of GCC Islamic banks are significantly higher than that of the conventional banks.

Keywords: ROA, ROE, Bank capital, Banking risks.

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Author :Dr. Heba A. Al-kandari
Discipline :Education - Early Childhood

The Views of Some Kindergarten Teachers in The State of Kuwait on The Reality of Child Physical and Verbal Violence Behavior

Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the reality of the prevalence of physical and verbal violence among kindergarten children in Kuwait, and to identify the most important causes of violence behaviour among children.
Method: The study used the descriptive analytical method where the study sample consisted of 40 kindergarten teachers from the two educational regions: Hawali and the capital city in kindergarten stage in Kuwait, in the second semester of 2018-2019.
Results: The results revealed that rates of the two forms of violent behaviour, verbal and physical, of kindergarten children in Kuwait came high from the teachers' perspective, and that the verbal violence was more prevalent among children than the physical violence. The answers to the questionnaire showed that the prevalence of violent behaviour among children is due to the following reasons listed according to their importance: the first is the playing violent games whether on video or computer with an average of 3.83. The 2nd reason was cartoons and violent series with an average of 3.78, while the 3rd reason was that children were not held accountable for their violent behaviour with an average of 3.70. The study sample suggested solutions to treat the violent behaviour in children summarized in: holding a daily sports session to let kids' energy out, the need for parents to pay attention to their children behaviour, providing advice and guidance to them, and reducing smart devices times, besides promoting the values of love and respect in their minds and hearts.
Conclusion: The researcher recommended founding an independent national body for children in Kuwait that specializes in protecting children's rights and developing solutions to children's issues, and conducting more studies on the impact of social media, interactive video, electronic games and smart devices on behaviour Violence in children.

Keywords: Violence, Physical violence, Verbal violence, Aggression, Child.

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