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Volume : 48 Issue : 184 2022

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Author :Dr. Theyab A. Alburaas - Prof. Abdullah M. Alhajeri
Discipline :History

The Controversy of Triple Ruling in Kuwait (Al-Sabah, Al-Khalifa, Al-Jalahma): Analytical Reading of Primary Texts

Objectives: The current study aims to deal with a core issue in Kuwait history, and still one of its postulates. It is about the political ruling system in Kuwait. The shared triarchy there was established (comprising three families: Al-Sabah, Al Khalifa, and al Jalahma), and has been historically linked to the hypothesis that the first ruling system known in Kuwait came through this triarchy. This controversy was a public postulate and a significant component in the readings that stood against attempts to interpret rule establishment in Kuwait, particularly with the literature of political development they had reflected emphasizing principles of (participation and Al shura).
Method: The study depended on historical, analytical and critical research that included deconstructing the main components of the controversy.
Results: The present study investigated and analyzed various Arabian and Western archive and documents concerning this controversy in order to confirm that a triarchy rule hypothesis in Kuwait is inaccurate as most (original) resources, local and Arabian, had nothing to -truthfully- confirm such ill-based hypothesis.
Conclusion: The importance of this study is that it comes to formulate and complete the text in order to interpret and clarify an important detail in the early history of Kuwait; The Ruling Family and its establishment.

Keywords: Triarchy, Utūb.

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Author :Dr. Abdullah Y. Alfailakawi
Discipline :Education

The Effectiveness of Using MyU Application to Enhance Interaction between Students and Faculty Members from the Perspective of Kuwait University Students

Objectives: This study aims to measure the effectiveness of using MyU application as a tool for student-student interaction, and students - teaching staff interaction from the perspective of students at Kuwait University.
Method: In order to determine the effectiveness of using MyU as a tool for interaction between students and teachers, the descriptive analytical method was used in this study by creating a tool (a survey) that contains two main sections: (The effectiveness of using MyU application as a tool for interaction among the students themselves, and the effectiveness of using MyU application as a tool for interaction between the students and the faculty teaching staff at Kuwait University). The sample represented in this study was limited to a group of Kuwait University students who have accounts on MyU application. They filled the electronic survey through the link published by the faculty members on MyU application. The total number of students who completed the survey was 2005 students.
Results: The results showed that students considered that MyU application contributed to their interaction with their colleagues to a medium level, while they believe that MyU application contributed to their interaction with faculty members above the medium level. Also, the results showed that there are statistically significant differences in favor of the interaction between a student and a faculty member. When looking at the variables in this study, the results related to the study specialization variable showed that there were statistically significant differences between students of scientific specializations and students of literary specializations in favor of literary specializations in both sections. As for the study stage variable, the results showed that there were statistically significant differences among the students in different years of study in each of the two study variables: The interaction among students, and the interaction between students and members of the teaching staff.  Finally, regarding the GPA variable, the results showed that there were statistically significant differences among the students’ GPAs in the two sections of study.
Conclusion: The results of the study showed that there is a need to develop electronic interaction among students using MyU application. Moreover, the instructors have also to highlight the importance of making best use of this application as a tool for interaction with the students.

Keywords: Mobile learning, Electronic interaction, MyU application, Student-student interaction, Student-teacher interaction.

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Author :Dr. Abdullah M. Alhayan - Dr. Mohammad A. Almutairi
Discipline :law

Individual Institution Transformability into Company after Death of Licensee: An Analytical Study

Objectives: The study highlights the prospects of continuation of the individual institution and the one-person company with respect to the death of the licensee and sole proprietor, and the capacity of heirs to transform the individual institution into any form of company, as the existence of such regulation enhances actual participation in the company, reduces the number of ineffective projects, and facilitates circulation of projects among partners and third party, instead of having the representative of heirs as manager of the institution, while heirs not having the right to participate in the management of the institution.
Method: The one-person company regulated under Law No. 1 of 2016 issuing the Companies Law, and the individual institution, regulated under Commercial Law No. 68 of 1980 and Law No. 111 of 2013 organizing commercial licenses, which prompted this study to adopt an analytical approach to the relevant legal articles in each law in order to reach the best results and present the best proposals which can be consulted in the conclusion.
Results: This study indicates the deficiencies in the Kuwaiti legal system with respect to the individual institution, and the implications of the death of the licensee. Also, this study presents a set of legal solutions the legislature can adopt to achieve the continuation of individual institutions and their transformation into a company after the death of the licensee.
Conclusion: The study concludes that it is necessary to amend Law No. 111 of 2013 regulating commercial licenses, and amend Law No. 1 of 2016 issuing the Companies Law by establishing an integrated system for the individual institutions, whether the licensee is alive or deceased, and how the individual institutions could be transformed into a company after the death of the licensee.

Keywords: One-person company, Individual institution, Legal personality, Management, Transformation.

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Author :Dr. Ali J. M. Buabbas
Discipline :Commercial law

Membership Status in Boards of Directors Joint-Stock Companies: A Study in Kuwait Companies Law No.(1) of 2016 and Its Amendments

Objectives: Through this study, we will know the people who acquire membership status in the board of directors of a joint-stock company according to the Kuwait Companies Law No. (1) of 2016, whereby acquiring the status of membership attributes commitments and rights, in addition to assuming responsibility for mistakes during the membership term, though these commitments, rights and responsibility are outside the scope of this study.
Method: The study adopted a descriptive analytical approach to the legislative texts, the opinions of jurists and some judicial rulings.  In some cases, it uses legislative texts of laws of other countries to support our opinion, or raise an issue that has not been regulated by the Kuwaiti law and benefit from those laws in developing Kuwait Corporate Law, without reaching the level of a comparative research.
Results: The study came to know the people who gain membership status in the boards of directors of the joint-stock companies.
Conclusion: The study ended with a set of recommendations to the Kuwaiti legislator in order to identify persons who gain the status of membership in the boards of directors of the joint-stock companies.

Keywords: Joint Stock Company, Board of Directors, Membership Status, Legal Person’s Representative.

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Author : Dr. Ali M. Alansari - Dr. Amal E. Alansari
Discipline :Educational Administration

The Problems Facing Principals of Effective Primary Schools in Kuwait: A Field Study

Objectives: The study aims at identifying problems facing principals of primary schools in Kuwait and providing suggested solutions to improve their performance in solving these problems.
Method: The descriptive survey approach was used as it fits the nature of the study. The survey population consisted of 789 male and female primary school principals in the State of Kuwait.
Results: The study showed that the communication between the board of directors and the workers is poor, represented in the strategic leadership. In addition, there is a shortage in the teaching staff, buildings, and cooperation, which reflects the aspect of educational leadership. Finally, the managers lack the skills to develop the leadership of the employees, which reflects communication leadership.
Conclusion: The study highlighted the importance of intensifying vocational training programs during educational service. Creating accredited training programs for qualification through cooperation with higher education bodies and universities. In addition, giving importance to developing the skills of school leaders in the field of school planning and human relations. Finally. Involving teachers in decision-making by providing administrative empowerment, not just delegating powers.

Keywords: Leadership, School Administration, Effective School Administrations.

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Author :Dr. Latifah J. Altammar
Discipline :Arabic literature

The Consistency of Composition and Flexibility of Interpretations: A Critical Reading Analysis of the Novel “Roses for You and Forks for Me”

Objectives: This reading aimed to study the novel by presenting the components of the narrative structure from the beginning to the end, a critical analytical study of an integrative nature.
Method: The method is based on the components of the narrative structure represented by reading the thresholds; the title of the novel and the titles of the chapters, the characters; the character is the mainstay on which the novel stands, place and time; the place in the novel is stronger and of a higher presence than the time, techniques; tools, means, attitudes, and ideas of an interactive nature through which a novel is constructed, in addition to flexibility of interpretations; attempt to define significance, and possibilities of interpretations are always open in narrative writings.
Results: The novel is rich in the artistic, linguistic, cultural and value-related sense that the author used in constructing his novel. And it stands as an organic unit that indicates a complete construction and lends itself to interpretations. The work is rich in evidence of artistic, cognitive and intellectual awareness.
Conclusion: We find that the creativity of the author is reflected in a text that is consistent in its construction and rich in its possibilities of interpretations. The novel is of an integrative nature, characterized by the gradual presentation of the components of the narrative structure from the beginning to the end.

Keywords: Social symmetry, Feminism, Generations struggle, Thresholds, Techniques.

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Author :Dr. Mohammed A. Al-abbas
Discipline :Accounting

The Impact of the Expanded Audit Report on the Audit Report Lag: A Field Study from the Saudi Audit Market

Objectives: This study aims at examining the impact of implementing the international auditing standards No. 700 and 701 on the audit report lag in the Saudi kingdom, which is the period between the end of the fiscal year and the date of issuing the audit report.
Method: A Generalized linear model was used to study the relation between the audit report lag and a number of variables reviewed in the literature of the audit reports: variables related to the characteristics of the audit office, and variables related to the characteristics of the customer.
The data of the study was extracted from the financial reports of the Saudi companies listed in the Saudi stock market for the fiscal years of 2016 and 2017. The final sample numbered 344 financial reports of the listed Saudi companies.
Results: The results showed that the average audit report lag  for the listed companies ranged between 7-109 days with a mean of 44 days. The audit report lag for the companies in 2016 ranged between 7-57 days with a mean of 42 days and a standard deviation of 12 days. In 2017, the audit report lag was between 7-109 days with a mean of about 46 days and a standard deviation of nearly 17 days. The results also indicated a statistically significant effect between the audit report lag and the implementation of the extended audit standards No. 700 and No. 701 with an effect that extends to two more days than the general average.
Conclusion: The results of this study confirm that the international auditing standards have a significant impact on the business environment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the thing that backs the decision of the Capital Market Authority to amend the maturity period for submitting financial statements from 45 days to 90 calendar days. In addition, the study recommends conducting more researches (surveys, personal interviews) to explore the underlying factors within the audit offices.

Keywords: Audit report lag, International audit standards, Saudi Arabia, Listed firm.

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Author :Dr. Mutlaq M. Alenezi
Discipline :Educational Administration

The Qualities and Practices of University Leadership in Attaining the Competitive Advantage for Kuwait University: The Opinions of Faculty Members in Kuwait University

Objectives: Identifying the qualities and practices necessary for university leadership in attaining the competitive advantage, and the practices hindering the realization of such advantage.
Method: A survey design was used. A questionnaire was applied on 288 members of the teaching staff that were randomly selected from all faculties of The Kuwait University.
Results: The results of the study showed that first: qualities of university leadership and the practices to achieve a high degree of competitive advantage are available. Secondly, there were many obstacles regarding practices of the current university leadership that hindered the realization of a high competitive advantage. Third, there were no statistically significant differences among the responses of the study sample regarding all aspects attributed to the variables of sex, working in a leadership position, and the academic rank. Forth, there were statistically significant differences among the responses of the study sample regarding the aspect of the current leadership practices that hindered the university leadership from attaining the competitive advantage due to the variable of the years of service in favor of the category (less than 10 years). Fifth, there were statistically significant differences among responses of the study sample regarding all the aspects attributed to the variable of the faculty; for professional faculties regarding the aspects of university leadership qualities and practices to achieve a competitive advantage; and for the scientific faculties related to the current leadership practices that hindered the university leadership from attaining the competitive advantages.
Conclusion: Many recommendations were suggested. First, developing the performance of academic leaders. Second, giving university leaders more powers and providing sufficient funds for scientific research projects.

Keywords: University Leadership, Competitive Advantage.

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Author :Dr. Heyam R. Boushehry - Dr. Mona A. Mohammad
Discipline :Special Education

Teacher’s Opinions on Integrating Moderate Mobility Needs in Physical and Movement Education Classes in Kindergarten through Middle Public Schools in Kuwait

Objectives: This study aims to identify the opinion of teachers on integrating moderate motor disabled students in physical movement education classes.
Method: A questionnaire was used as the main study tool. The study questionnaire includes the following domains: social 6 questions, psychological 5 Questions, educational
5 questions, teachers’ abilities and knowledge impact of integration 5 questions, and two questions about teachers’ opinion regarding the capacity of the school. Samples were 265, 106 males and 159 females, from public and kindergartens in public schools of Hawally district in Kuwait.
Results: Samples were 106 (40%) males’ and 159 (60%) females’ teachers in public schools. The percentage approval indicates that there are positive social effects of the merger between 61% and 83%. The percentage approval on the existence of positive psychological effects on the disabled between 68% and 86%. The percentage approval of the academic effects was between 61.5% and 83% of the sample.
Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that the trends of the experienced and specialists encourage the integration of people with special needs with the normal education system in Kuwait, because of its positive effects for the disabled and the society in general, in social, psychological, academic, or educational domains. Females PE teachers and movement education teachers tend to be more serious about taking training sessions on special needs compared to male teachers in the present study.

Keywords: Inclusion, Students with disabilities, Teacher preparation, Movement education, Physical education.

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Author :Dr. Najwa M. Al-Fawaz
Discipline :Educational Administration

Indicators Linking University of Tabuk’s Strategic Plans with Sustainability Standards and Their Green Implementations in Institutions According to Vision 2030

Objectives: To identify the indicators of association between strategic plans of University of Tabuk and sustainability standards and their green implementations in institutions according to Vision 2030.
Method: Using the inductive analytical method, the study analyzes the first strategic plan of University of Tabuk for the year 1433/1437AH -2012/2016 AD, and the second strategic plan “Excellence in Education” for the year 1438/39-1442/43AH - 2018-2022 AD as well. The study sample relied on the University of Tabuk’s first and second strategic plans and previous studies that addressed sustainability and its green implementations.
Results: There is no correlation between the indicators of strategic plans in the first and second plans of University of Tabuk and sustainability standards and their green implementations in institutions according to Vision 2030, while the second goal in the second plan of University of Tabuk for the year 1433-1437 AH came in line with the Kingdom’s 2030 vision for environmental sustainability and reducing pollution.
Conclusion: The mission and vision of the university should include goals which backs environmental sustainability, and the focus on including a value system in the plan that aids enhancing the concept of environmental responsibility.

Keywords: Strategic planning, Sustainability, Green Applications, 2030 vision.

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Author :Dr. Dhary S. Al-Kandary - Prof. Jasem M. Al-Awadhi
Discipline :Environmental Sciences

Mapping Traffic Noise in Kuwait City

Objectives: This study mainly aims to firstly predicting the traffic noise level using SoundPLAN 7.1 software, and secondly constructing traffic noise maps for Kuwait City during the daytime, evening, and nighttime periods on weekdays and weekends.
Method: Traffic noise maps were developed using the SoundPLAN 7.1 software and Geographic Information System (GIS) datasets and traffic information. The geo-data sets included ground topography, road design, asphalt type, 3-D building, and weather data sets. For model validation purpose, 24-hour field measurements of noise levels were collected at 13 locations distributed throughout Kuwait City using Casella CEL - 490 Sound Level Meters.
Results: The average percentage difference between field measurements monitored in October 2016 and predicted noise values was 1.9%. Both average predicted and measured noise values (65.1 and 66.2 dB(A), respectively) exceeded the established Kuwait Environmental Public Authority (KEPA) standard of 65 dB(A) under the category of “Traffic- Urban Residential with Commercial Sites” with 27.7% of the total coverage area of Kuwait city. The resulted traffic noise map showed similar spatial patterns for noise levels on weekends and weekdays because of the similarity in the traffic flow direction of the vehicles.
Conclusion: The traffic noise level in Kuwait City exceeds the KEPA national standard limits during all periods of a day on both weekdays and weekends.

Keywords: Traffic, Noise, SoundPLAN 7.1 Software, GIS, Kuwait.

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Author :Dr. Meznah S. Alazmi
Discipline :Educational Administration

The Problem of Unemployment of Graduates with University Degrees in the State of Kuwait: An Analytical and Standard Study

Objectives:  The study aimed to identify levels of unemployment among university graduates and above in the State of Kuwait. Calculating the average of their years of unemployment and the resulting economic losses. In addition to studying the determinants of this educated unemployment during the period 2004-2018.
Method: The study followed two approaches: the descriptive analytical approach, which relies on collecting texts, information and all data related to the subject and then analyzing them; as well as the standard approach to study the impact of some economic and non-economic variables on graduates’ unemployment.
Results: The most important results showed that the average of the unemployment rate for university graduates and above is constantly increasing, as their number reached 3069 unemployed graduates, at a rate of 41.42% in 2019. The period of a university graduate unemployment lasted between less than 6 months to 12 months and more, and the highest rate of unemployment was for the period of 6 months to less than 12 months. Moreover, the economic return of the unemployed graduate, whether he is single or married, is affected by the duration of the unemployment; a longer period means greater losses of the economic return. The standard study revealed that all independent variables (domestic income, government spending and population) are not significant, which means that they do not affect the unemployment rate of graduates with university degrees and above.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the average of unemployment rate for university graduates and above is constantly increasing, and all independent variables are not significant, which means that they do not affect the unemployment rate.

Keywords: Unemployment, Graduate, University degree, Economic loss.

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