Journal of Law

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Volume : 46 Issue : 178 2020

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Author :Dr. Najah T. El-Zaidy
Discipline :Arabic language and its literature

The Cohesion Mechanisms in the Speeches of his Highness the Amir of Kuwait During the Years 2018-2019.

The Goal of the Study: To explain the mechanisms of cohesion in the speeches of the Emir of Kuwait during the years 2018-2019, considering the importance of those speeches in recent times due to their great influence, contemplation of the current events, their variety in term of occasions and topics as well as the appreciation His Highness has locally and internationally.
Study Methodology: It used the descriptive method based on inventory (complete and partial).
Sample and Study Data: The research was applied to (13) letters, which are all the speeches of His Highness, from January 1st, 2018 until the end of March 2019.
Study Results: The study found out that Cohesion in those letters was one of the most important things that maintained the text through two important ways: grammatical cohesion via referrals and coherence via repetition. In addition, using statistics in following up repetition and referrals had great benefits in controlling the results and the ability of applying them on other letters. Also, applying textual criteria on important political texts had a great benefit of identifying the directions of the originator of this text as well as what the means and mechanism of that textual can express of His Hinges insights and way of thinking.
Conclusion: Those who write those speeches linguistically should take into consideration: paying attention to the statistic data as an important mechanism in textual studies, especially with such important political texts, and building those speeches via the different textual coherence criteria due to the fact that the latter is important content and form-wise and makes a great impact on the addressees.

Keywords: Towards Text, Textual Coherence, Cohesion, Referral.

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Author :Dr. Mohammad N. AlTamimi - Dr. Ahmad H. Alqahtani
Discipline :Law

The Applicability of Domestic Criminal Law on the Accomplice Acts in Transnational Offences.

The Goal of the Study: In the lights of the technical development of communication and transportation methods, transnational offences have exceeded the traditional idea of a crime and its constituent elements which created complications in prosecuting the accomplice of a transnational offence. This research aims to examine the Kuwaiti criminal regulation of the accomplice acts in transnational offences to demonstrate the difficulty in prosecuting the accomplice. In more detail, it considers the legal issue of whether states have the criminal jurisdiction for the accomplice acts in transnational offences and to what extent it is possible to prosecute the accomplice when a state does not hold the jurisdiction to prosecute the principal of that crime and whether national legislations are able to observe such case in the state of trans-continents crime.
The Methodology: This research adopts the critical analysis methodology when examining the Kuwaiti criminal law provisions with reference to the comparative legal systems such as the French law in order to clarify the effectiveness of the Kuwaiti criminal regulation and how effective it has been combating the transnational crimes.
The Results of the Study: This research concludes that Kuwaiti law partially observes the accomplice acts in transnational offences. Therefore, there is a need to explicitly regulate the accomplice acts in transnational offences in order to avoid any gaps that might weaken the position of the State in fighting the organized crimes.

Keywords: Accomplice, Transnational offence, Jurisdiction, Prosecution.

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Author :Dr. Mansour A. Al-Jadeed
Discipline :Architecture and planning

Heritage Quarters of Addiriyah Existing Conditions and Proposed Development.

The Goal of the Study: The study aims to introduce the heritage quarters of Addiriyah city, monitor the current situation in those neighborhoods, and present various urban and architectural proposals for development in order to build an integrated model for the care of heritage areas and urban oases.
Study Methodology: The study adopted the descriptive analytical approach through theoretical research and reference to historical bibliography, as well as through field research, which was represented in many visits to the study area and meeting with many of the elderly residents of Addiriyah city and its inhabitants.
Type of the Study: The study is classified as a documentary survey of the situation of heritage quarters of Addiriyah city and gives several proposals to invest them in an effective and sustainable way.
Study Results: The study showed that there are ten heritage quarters in Addiriyah city that share distinctive urban and architectural elements. The study focused on the importance of developing these quarters and investing them in the Historical Development Program of Addiriyah.
Study Conclusion: The study concluded with a number of important recommendations, the most important of which is the need to have a comprehensive plan for Addiriyah city in all its historical, heritage, and modern quarters, and its environmental and material elements, in order to guarantee the absorption of existing and future development projects and achieve sustainability in its various dimensions.

Keywords: Urban Heritage, Traditional Architecture, Historical Quarters, Addiriyah Master Plan, Historical Development Program of Addiriyah.

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Author :Dr. Rahma B. Al-Sinani
Discipline :History

Divine Punishment in the Inscriptions of Ancient Arabian Peninsula.

The Goal of the Study: This study aims to identify the concept of divine punishment among the ancient inhabitants of Arabia? And the mistakes that require the wrath of idols on human beings?  What kind scares you? Was the punishment limited to the life of the world, or did it extend to the post-mortem?  Are there any specific idols that have been punished for offenders? What is the impact of godly punishment on society, and thus in the emergence and development of the moral values of the people of the Arabian Peninsula in the pre-B.C. period.
Study methodology: Historical, inductive, analytical.
The results of the study: The inscriptions of punishment in the Arabian Peninsula indicated the association of divine punishment with the sin committed in the minds of the worshippers, and the inscriptions of The Arabian Peninsula proved the classification of sins in two types of religious and worldly in terms of type, deliberate and unintentional in terms of action and all punishment and atonement, as confirmed that the divine punishment in the ancient Arabian Peninsula falls on everyone and does not exclude the higher classes of society from the punishment against them in the event of sin even if they are the rulers of states or priests of temples, which are the houses of the gods.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the divine punishments contributed to the organization of the ancient Arab societies, where they helped to achieve the security and psychological stability of the members of those societies as confirmed by the inscriptions.

Keywords: Punishment, Idols, Temples, Sins, Infidels, Priests, Fines.

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Author :Dr. Hafidha S. Al-Barashdi - Dr. Said S. Aldhafri
Discipline :Education

Uses and Gratification of Social Networking Sites (SNSs) among Young Omanis.

The Goal of the Study: To investigate the Gratification achieved by the use of SNSs among young Omanis.
Study Methodology: The study used the descriptive methodology.
Sample of The Study: The study was applied on a sample of 550 young men and women from the Sultan Qaboos University (295 male and 255 female) who answered a questionnaire designed by the researchers.
Study Results: The study showed that the order of favorite networks and applications of social networking among young Omanis was as follows: WhatsApp, Instagram, Twitter, Google+, and Facebook. The most important uses of social media are for the purposes of: social, cultural, commercial then business. More than one-third of the study sample (37.9%) use social media for more than 3-4 hours per day. The most important topics that are exchanged by the Omani youth through social media are social human communication, religious topics, weather news, political issues, work, and trade. As for people young Omanis communicate with, they are:  friends, co-workers, family members, relatives, neighbors, and acquaintances.
Study Conclusion: Results showed that the most important gratifications for using social media were seeking information and entertainment, then came social interaction and self-expression. Freedom and privacy were followed by self-developing and feeling safe and finally came self-identity and conforming to peers. There were statistically indicative differences between the two genders (for the favor of the males) in realizing gratifications by using social network sites in order to acquire information and entertainment, maintaining freedom and privacy.

Keywords: SNSs, Uses and Gratification Theory, Young Omanis.

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Author :Dr. Maryam M. Alkandari
Discipline :Political Science

The (Kanadrah) in Kuwait between 1900- 2014.

The Study Goal : This research focuses on the integration of the "Kanadrah" into Kuwait's political system. This work pinpointed the main social, economic, and political factors that played an essential role in pushing/pulling this group from the East to the West Coast of the Gulf, in particular Kuwait. The study shows how the new developing Emarah attracted people from neighboring communities to evolve as a new nation-state.
Study Mythology: For the purpose of the research, it needed to combine different methods to collect data to provide a better understanding of reading the "Kanadrah" ethnic group. First, archives, books, maps, relevant articles, and studies were so vital to comprehend the historical aspect of this research. Second, conducting interviews with academics and experts on Kuwait's history and social development was essential to confirm and expand on the collected data. Third, interviews with elderly individuals from the Kanadarah clan (both females and males) were necessary for understanding their social dynamics with other groups from the Kuwaiti community.
Study Results: This research has highlighted the knowledge of those who are called "Kanadrah" in the Kuwaiti community. It clarifies how the "Kanadrah" group has benefited from Kuwait's public policies in the pre/post-oil era. This group has participated in Kuwait's socio-economic coexistence through carrying out many crafts, in particular water transportation and supply. It appears that in the old days' water transportation had crafted a surname and a title identified and associated with this group. Until recent times the identification exists, although the mean of transportation has disappeared. The impact of public welfare policies that took place during the oil-era such as free education, health care, job opportunities, government and private sector, and training programs has helped in supporting the processes of social mobility and integration into the system. Also, interacting and participating in civic organizations and political factions helped create new national identification among the offspring’s of early "Kanadrah" emigrants.
Recommendation of the Study: This research contributes to understanding the Gulf region and its communities. Hence, most of the studies have portrayed Gulf communities as oil oriented countries or highlighted the role of political and merchant elites without offering an in-depth analysis of the different components of the Kuwaiti society.

Keywords: Kuwait society, social integration, identification, nation-building, alKanadrah, Fares Dessert (Bar Faress), Ethnic group in Kuwait.

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Author :Dr. Khaled N. Al-Ohali
Discipline :Education

The Impact of Multimedia Program in Developing Learning Competencies and Attitudes Towards Learning among Social Studies Teachers in Qassim Region.

The Goal of the Study: The study aimed at investigating the impact of a multimedia program in developing teaching competencies and attitudes towards learning among social studies teachers in Al-Qassim region.
Study Methodology: A quasi-experimental design was used for equivalent random groups.
Study Tools: The researcher applied three tools:
The First: to measure the teaching competencies of (60) items covering (5) domains.
The Second: attitudes measuring questionnaire towards teaching of (20) items.
The Third: the multimedia program was developed to improve the teaching competencies level among social science teachers in the Al-Qassim region.
The Study Sample: It consisted of (50) teachers distributed equally to an experimental group and a control group. The equivalency of both groups was checked too.
The Study Results: The study results revealed that there are statistically indicative differences between the level of teaching competencies of the experimental and group compared to the control group for the favor of the experimental group. Also, there are statistically indicative differences in the level of attitudes toward teaching in the experimental group compared to the control groups to the favor of the first.

Keywords: Multimedia Program, Learning Competencies, Attitudes towards teaching, Social Studies Teachers, Al- Qassim Region.

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Author :Dr. Amal A. Alsaleh
Discipline :Education

The Dominate Ethical Climate in Kuwait Public Schools and its Relation to Teachers' Attitudes Toward Teaching Profession from their Point of View.

The Goal of the Study: The aim of the study is to investigate school teachers' perspectives toward the dominant ethical climate in public schools in Kuwait. It also aims to investigate their attitudes toward their teaching professions and its relation to their perspectives toward school ethical climate.
Study Methodology: The study adopted descriptive research methodology by using two instruments, one consisted of (21) items and the other from (12) items.
Sample and Study Data: The study sample was (1351) teachers in public schools in Kuwait.
Study Results: The results showed positive teachers' perspectives toward dimensions of the school climate. The independence climate was dominant and ranked first, according to teachers' responses, followed by efficiency climate, laws and rules climate, care climate, and instrumental climate came last. Additionally, Teachers' attitudes toward the profession were (high to medium). The five dimensions of the ethical climates in the school predict 29.9% of the total degree of teachers' attitudes toward the profession. There are statistical correlations between the four types of ethical climates (independence, efficiency, instrumental, and care) and teacher attitudes towards their teaching profession.

Keywords: Ethical climate, Attitudes toward teaching profession.

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Author :Prof. Faisal H. Al-Mull
Discipline :Education

A Proposed Model for Quality Standards for Academic Programs of Colleges of Physical Education.

Objectives of Study: This study aimed to design and construct a model for standards for academic programs of physical education colleges, and to check its psychometric properties in the light of scientific literature and previous studies that related the subject of the study.
Study Methodology: To achieve the objectives of the study, the initial version of the proposed scales consisted of (73) indicators. Based on reviewing and analyzing remarks, the final version of the scales took its final version with (65) indicators categorized over nine main standards.
Sample and Data of Study: The sample of the study consisted of (100) faculty members of the physical education departments and colleges in Arab universities. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, T-test, and One-Way ANOVA.
Results of Study: The study indicated the following findings:
The scale of the proposed model criteria for the quality of academic programs for physical education colleges consists of administrative organization, program design, courses design, content presentation, course evaluation, students' support, faculty support, learning resources in addition to quality assurance and improvement.
The scale of the proposed model has a high degree of structural validity, as the correlation coefficient reached (0.74). The reliability of the proposed scale was extracted through consistency where the alpha coefficient reached (0.78), and stability where the correlation coefficient reached (0.79).
The scale of the proposed model has a high degree of structural validity, as the correlation coefficient reached (0.74). The reliability of the proposed scale was extracted through consistency, where the alpha coefficient reached (0.78), and stability where the correlation coefficient reached (0.79).
Study Recommendations: It recommended the necessity to use the proposed model as quality standards to measure the quality of physical education programs in the Arab world.

Keywords: Quality standards, Academic programs, quality indicators, College of health and sport Sciences.

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Author :Dr. Mishari A. Almusa
Discipline :Arabic language and literature

Solidarity Strategy in the National Anthems of GCC Countries.

The Goal of the Study: It aimed to reveal solidarity strategy tools employed by the author of the speeches subject of this study.
Study Methodology: The study applies solidarity strategy which is one of four discourse strategies (the solidarity, the instructional, the allusive, and the persuasive strategy).
Study Discourses: They are the national anthems of the GCC countries.
Study Conclusion: In the end, the study comes to that discovering the strategy which an author applies in his discourse leads us to a deeper understanding of the discourse. The study also concludes that studying discourse in the light of discourse strategies helps to determine which decisions an author takes while writing his discourse, and that linguistic techniques come similar in discourses that share the same goals even when written by different authors.

keywords: Discourse Solidarity Strategy, National Anthems.

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Author :Dr. Anwar A. M. Al-Jazaf
Discipline :Economic Media

Freedom of Access to Economic Information for Kuwaiti Sovereign Wealth Funds and Enhance Disclosure Transparency of Media " A Field Study on Journalists Working in the Kuwaiti Media ''.

Aim of the Paper: The study aimed to identify the level of access to financial information and data of the Sovereign Wealth Fund, the media from which journalists inquire about this information, and the reasons for the poor publication and disclosure regarding the information related to the Sovereign Wealth Fund, as well as the impact of free access to information in establishing the values of transparency in the data related to the Sovereign Wealth Fund. The study also aimed to identify the relation between the difficulty of the media access to data and information of the Sovereign Wealth Fund and the role of this information in establishing the values of transparency.
Study Methodology: The study used the descriptive survey method.
Study Design: The study used the descriptive survey method.
Sample and Data of the Study: The sample consisted of (150) journalists working in newspapers and journalists working in the media field in Kuwait.
Study Results: The results showed that the reasons behind the poor publication and disclosure regarding the information related to the Sovereign Wealth Fund were legal reasons (48.7%), the government strategy (23.3%). The study also showed that Kuwaiti local media were the most important source from which the sample individuals obtain their information regarding the data of the Sovereign Wealth Fund by (41.4%), while foreign media came next with (40.0%). It was also found that freedom difficulty of the media access to the data and information of the Sovereign Wealth Fund was (94.7%), and that the ability to obtain information and financial data of the Sovereign Wealth Fund in the State of Kuwait was of a small percent.
Study Conclusion: The study showed the necessity of discussing the financial statements of the financial condition of the Sovereign Fund in an open session under the dome of the National Assembly rather as the case now in a secret session. The study also recommended that the General Investment Authority should adopt a policy of disclosure and transparency.

Keywords: Sovereign Wealth Funds, Media, Transparency, Free Access to Information.

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Author :Prof. Hend B. Al-Ma'seb - Dr. Anwar F. Alkhurinej
Discipline :Sociology and Social Work

The Effect of Stigma on Attitudes towards Seeking Help from Social Workers.

The Goal of the Study: In the field of social work, social workers understand that it is \very difficult for individuals to ask for help from therapists. Therefore, it is important to study the variables associated with seeking professional help.
Study Methods: A total of 478 undergraduate students from Kuwait University participated voluntarily in the study.
Study Results: The findings for this study showed that the participants have a slightly high degree of public stigma, low self -stigma, and positive attitude toward seeking professional help. In addition, the findings of the study reveal that there are significant relations between gender, taking social work classes, thinking about receiving counseling, and having social problems and participants' attitude towards seeking professional help. Furthermore, the findings of the study showed that there were significant relations between gender, and thinking about receiving counseling, and self-stigma.
Study Conclusion: The findings of the current study have implications for the field of social work in Kuwait that would help to improve the knowledge in this area.

Keywords: Seeking Help, Social work, Social worker, Stigma.

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