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Volume : 48 Issue : 187 2022

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Author : Prof. Abdullah M. Alhayyan - Dr. Fahed A. Alzumai
Discipline :law

Sports Clubs Becoming Commercial Companies in Kuwait Law: A Comparative Study

Objectives: The study highlights the importance of investing in the sports industry by identifying the requirements and obstacles to the transformation of sports clubs into commercial companies under the provisions of Kuwaiti law. This was done by displaying investment experiences in the sports field in comparative legal systems, and by placing some suggestions that would facilitate the transformation process in Kuwait. Given the importance of investing in the sports field, we considered that it is important to conduct a comparative analytical study of the requirements for the transformation of sports clubs into companies, by asking the following two questions; what are the requirements for the transformation of sports clubs into companies in Kuwait? And are the current legal frameworks sufficient to do so?  Method:  This study adopts the comparative analytical descriptive approach by reviewing, analyzing Sports Law No. 87 of 2017, and comparing this law with comparative legal systems.  Results:  The study concluded that the legal framework for clubs does not constitute a real transformation in sports investment, under the Sports Law, as the legal framework still needs to develop to achieve the goals set by the Kuwaiti legislator, especially with regard to the transformation of the current sports clubs from social work to Investment activity and transformation into commercial companies. On the other hand, governance rules are almost missing in the sports investment system, which requires the introduction of governance rules in line with the nature of the sports investment sector.  Conclusion:  The study concludes that despite a long time since the issuance of the Sports Law, the controls, and conditions for converting sports clubs into commercial entities have not been established yet.

Keywords:  Sports clubs, Sports investment, Converting clubs into companies, Kuwaiti sports law.
 

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Author : Dr. Ahmed S. Alatawi
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Employment of Local Folklore Heritage in Saudi Woman's Theater

Objectives: The studies that tackles Saudi women's theater with an independent study are scarce. At its best, Saudi women's theater often is taught combined with the Saudi man's production in this field. This study approximates the Saudi women theater to discuss the patterns of local folklore that the Saudi woman uses in her theater and the mechanisms that she uses to employ this heritage. The study includes preface three sections and conclusion.  Methods: This study approaches women's theatrical production by using the descriptive approach that contributes to reading and analyzing plays written by Saudi women to determine the patterns of local folklore that the Saudi female writer employs in her theater and the goals she wants to achieve from this employment. The plays under study are: (Naqid) and (The Will) by Hamad al-Shamlani, (The Exiles) by Abeer Al-Baz, (A Sincere Love) by Maryam Al-Harthy, (Mother's Axe) by Malhah Abdullah and (Divorce) by Huda Al-Rashid.  Results: This study revealed the local folklore patterns used by the Saudi female writer, namely: the local singing and popular poetry, the local folk tale, and the local folk proverb. It also demonstrated the functions of each pattern of local Saudi folklore that were included in Saudi women's theater.  Conclusion: The study concludes that the local folklore was present in the Saudi women's theater. This recruitment was not limited to a specific writer but instead included a group of female writers, and it came to achieve different functions in the theatrical script.
 
 Keywords:  Saudi woman's theater, Folklore, Folk singing, Folk poetry, Folk proverb.
 

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Author :Dr. Kalthoum M. Alkandari
Discipline :Education

The Efficacy of Employing Micro-Teaching Strategy in Developing the Teaching Competencies and Skills of the Islamic Studies Students Teachers in Practical Education at Kuwait University

Objectives: The study aimed to identify the effectiveness of employing Micro-teaching techniques among Islamic studies students' teachers within their early field experience courses for teaching Islamic studies at the College of Education at Kuwait University, and to unveil how effective practicing these techniques reflected their teaching competencies and skills during the field experience training period.  Method:  the study adopted descriptive methodology approach and utilized a questionnaire consisting of 37 phrases developed and distributed into six dimensions based on three primary skills: first, lesson preparation, planning skills. Second: lesson execution skills such as: presentation, explanation and linking aspect, teaching methods, and lesson completion. The third was evaluation and assessment skills. The study sample consisted of 83 female students' teachers enrolled in early field experience courses of Teaching Islamic Studies Methods and doing their practical field time for the academic year of 2018-2019.  Results:  Findings showed that the Microteaching strategy has an influential role in developing teaching competencies among the studied sample. The lesson preparation and planning skills showed high statistical significance with an agreement rate of 74.1%, and lesson execution skills scored a high agreement rate of 81.5%, whereas the evaluation and assessment skills had the highest agreement rate of 90.0%.  Conclusion:  The study concluded the significance of fostering Microteaching strategy in early field experience courses, which has positive impact on the skills and competencies of students of Islamic studies.
 
Keywords:  Microteaching, Student-teacher, Educational filed experience, Islamic education.
 

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Author :Dr. Nayef F. Alghais - Dr. Saad M. Algharib
Discipline :Geography

Evaluation of the Labour Cities Locations Using a GIS-based on Multi-criteria in Kuwait (in English)

Objectives: Labour cities is a term used to describe residential areas purposely constructed to host a large group of workers of a particular company or employed in a certain sector. In Kuwait, six labour cities are proposed by the government to house the disproportionately large number of expatriate workers in the country. This research evaluates the locations of these proposed labour cities.  Method:  This study describes a framework based on GIS and MCDA that uses multiple population and spatial criteria to assign suitability scores to each of the proposed locations. The criteria weights were derived from interviews with official stakeholders and geospatial data. Separately, Raster data was used to validate the findings of the primary GIS/MCDA model of the study.  Results:  It is found that the most suitable site is South Sabah Al Ahmed with a suitability score of 68%. This was confirmed by raster suitability analysis.  Conclusion:  The findings show that the capacity of the new labour cities is not high enough to significantly drive down population density, traffic congestion and pressure on infrastructure systems in Kuwait, but there are benefits for population in existing districts.

Keywords:  Analytical hierarchy process, GIS, Kuwait, Labour cities, Multi criteria decision analysis.
 

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Author :Hayat Alyaqout
Discipline :Libraries and information sciences

Kuwaiti Commercial Publishers' Attitudes towards E-books (in English)

Objectives:  This study investigates the attitudes of Kuwaiti commercial publishers towards e-book publishing. It aims to find out factors that drive as well as hinder them to publish e-books.  Method:  The study was based on Winston's model for the development and diffusion of communication technology. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to twenty Kuwaiti commercials publishers who are members of the Arab Publishers' Association.  Results:  It was found that 30% of surveyed publishers publish e-books. No correlation was found between publishers' years in operation and the decision to produce e-books. Nine barriers preventing or delaying e-book adoption were investigated: readers' preference of printed books was agreed by 90% of publishers, lack of demand by readers for e-books 70%, e-piracy 50%, lack of knowledge of e-book technologies 40%, difficulty in pricing e-books 35%, lack of knowledge of e-book marketing 35%, e-books being cheaper which decreases eventual revenues 30%, lack of knowledge about online money collection 15%, and difficulty writing contracts with authors 15%. Eight motivators promoting e-book adoption were investigated: e-books' ability to reach new markets 85%, eliminating book logistics 85%, availability of the Internet and e-reading devices 80%, overcoming book censorship 70%, e-books costing less that printed books 70%, wide market of Arabic speaking countries 60%, availability of effective technologies against piracy 50%, and author demand 10%.  Conclusion:  Publishers agree to almost all surveyed e-book production drivers. They are however deterred due to barriers, especially the ones related to readers' preferences to printed books, and book piracy.

Keywords:  E-books, Digital books, Publishing industry, Commercial publishing, Kuwait.
 

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Author : Dr. Muhammad F. Al-Faris
Discipline :Modern History

The Beginning of Formal Education in the United Arab Emirates, Its Development and British Attitude towards it (1953 -1960)

Objectives: This study aims to track the developments that formal education has been through since its early beginning in the Trucial Emirates (now the United Arab Emirates) in 1953, and the difficulties that faced it until 1960.  Method:  The research relied on analyzing and studying what was mentioned in the reports and correspondences of the British officials and local employees working with them. It also relied on personal interviews that the researcher has conducted in 1993 with "Mustafa Youssef Taha", the first teacher sent by Kuwait to start formal education in Sharjah in 1953, and also with "Muhammad Diab Al-Mousa" who succeeded Taha in his mission in 1955 and became the principal of the first regular school in Emirates.  Results:  This study sheds light on the early years of establishing formal education in the Emirates, since its inception with the first formal school opened in Sharjah which was followed later by other schools in the rest of the Emirates. The study also highlighted the British attitude towards the launch of formal education in Emirates, and the clash between the British authority and Arab teachers. It also addressed the role of Kuwait in establishing and supporting formal education, besides the support and assistance that other Arab countries provided later. It also shed light on the role of Arab teachers in the social movement that resulted from the beginning of education, and led to major changes in the UAE society.  Conclusion:  This study was concluded with a set of conclusions. It focused on analyzing what came in the British documents, of important historical material about the interventions of British officials in education affairs, the British refraining from providing better opportunity for the endeavors of Kuwait to uplift the education in the Emirates, in addition to not providing sufficient aid that matches Britain's financial position and its status as a dominant power in the region, but rather focusing on secondary matters such as monitoring scholarship teachers, and paying attention to the impact of Kuwaiti aid on Britain situation in the region.
 
Keywords:  The beginning of formal education, Arab teachers, The reaction of the British authorities towards education.
 

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Author : Prof. Waleed I. Al Abiky - Prof. Badrueldeen K. Abdu
Discipline :Sociology

The Impact of Emergent Growing Rest Places "Isteraha" in Qassim Region on the Family Ties and Bonds: An Educational, Social Study

Objectives: The aim of the current study is to investigate the causes and impacts of the growing phenomena, which is called rest houses 'Isteraha', in Qassim region on the family ties and bonds.  Method:  Quantitative method was used, in which more than '150' questionnaire were distributed on the participants out of which '100' questionnaires were returned completely. The data were gathered from the responses of the study sample, a purposive sample, in which participants had to be Saudi males who frequently go to Isteraha at least twice a week.  Results:  The major findings are: meeting friends to share news, activities and social events formed the biggest reason for going to Isteraha, the majority of the sample agreed that Isteraha had some educational impacts on them and their families, the inability to regularly visit their children at schools and be aware of the academic progress formed the highest educational impact, and the majority of the sample denied any social impacts of Isteraha for them saying that their social roles as fathers was not affected.  Conclusion:  Several recommendations and suggestions were made for further academic endeavors regarding Isteraha and its individual and social effects from different aspects especially with the rapid growing of the phenomena.

Keywords:  Isteraha, Family ties and bonds, Qassim region.
 

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Author : Badriya Kh. Al Jabri - Dr. Khalaf M. Al Abri - Dr. Rashid S. Al-Fahdi
Discipline :Educational Administration

The Reality of Practicing the Principles of Governance in the Directorates General at the Headquarters of the Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the reality of practicing governance in the Directorates General at the headquarter of the Ministry of Education in the Sultanate of Oman.  Method:  The study adopted the descriptive approach with its quantitative design to identify the problem under study and explain its dimensions. Therefore, a survey was used as a study tool to look into the reality of practicing governance in the Directorates General through the domains of Transparency, Participation, Accountability, and Justice. The tool was applied to a sample of 316 employees from the Directorates General.  Results:  The study identified a number of results, the most important of which was that the reality of governance practice was of a moderate degree according to the estimates of the sampled individuals, and the reality of practicing the dimensions of Transparency, Participation and Accountability came in a moderate degree, while the practice of Justice came in a low degree. The results also indicated that there were no statistically significant differences according to the study sampled individuals for the whole questionnaire and its domains attributed to the variable of the academic qualification and the variable of years of experience, while there were statistically significant differences for the questionnaire as a whole and its component dimensions attributed to the function variable.  Conclusion:  The study concludes that there is a practice of governance through the principles of Transparency, Participation and Accountability, but the practice of the principle of Justice is still low, and that there is no effect for both the academic qualification and years of experience of the degree of practicing governance while there is an effect of the job variable.
 
 Keywords:  Governance, Transparency, Participation, Accountability, Justice.
 

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Author : Dr. Adnan A. Alenezi
Discipline :Political Science

China's Belt and Road Initiative and Its Impact on Kuwait's Foreign Policy

Objectives: The study aimed to address China's Belt and Road Initiative and it impact on Kuwait's foreign Policy, as well as identifying the dynamics that motivated Kuwait to join the Initiative. The study also examined the areas of cooperation between Kuwait and Chine within the framework of the 2035 Kuwait vision and the belt and Road Initiative.  Method:  To achieve this objective, the study used two decision making and analytical methods. The study also used complex independence theory as a theoretical framework.  Results:  The study reached several results, the most important of which are: (1) the vision of Belt and Road Initiative converges with the 2035 Kuwait vision, as both visions aim to achieve sustainable development. (2) Kuwaiti and Chinese foreign Policy are very similar; both of them adopt a foreign policy based on balance, strategic hedging and mediation. Therefore, they can play a key role in resolving disputes and mediating between the conflicting parties participating in the Initiative. (3) Interdependence is the basis of relationship between Kuwait and China.  Conclusion:  It is necessary that Kuwait is seeking to find alternative economic Plans that could be adopted in the event of the disruption of the Belt and Road Initiative.
 
 Keywords:  Belt and road initiative, The State of Kuwait, The 2035 Kuwait Vision, Silk city project, Interdependence.
 

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Author : Dr. Faiez A. M. Al-Dhafairi - Dr. Sarah M. J. Mubarak - Dr. Fahd O. Al-Husseini
Discipline :Education

Level of Attitudes of Slow-Learning Students Teachers towards Distance Education and Their Opinions for Impediments in View of COVID-19 Pandemic in the State of Kuwait (Blended Research)

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the level of attitudes of slow-Learning students' teachers towards distance education and their opinions regarding the impediments in view of COVID-19 pandemic in the State of Kuwait.  Method:  The Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods were used in this study. The researchers used measurement to identify level of attitudes of slow-learning students' teachers towards distance education, after verifying its validity and reliability significances, and then conducted interviews with slow-learning student teachers to identify barriers to the use of distance education with slow-learning students. The study was applied to a sample of 139 male and female deliberately selected teachers who teach slow-learning students. Then, the researchers interviewed 17 male and female teachers form the sample.  Results:  The quantitative results concluded that the level of attitudes of slow-Learning students' teachers towards distance education is low (negative), there are no statistically significant differences attributed to teacher's gender and years of experience, and there are statistically significant differences attributed to the stage of school. The qualitative results concluded to some impediments expressed by male and teachers when using distance learning with slow-learning students such as lack of flow-up by parents, apathy of slow-learning students, and inability to appropriately give instructions and notes.  Conclusion:  The study recommends that male and female teachers should be provided with applications and techniques that are convenient for slow-learning students in line with distance learning.

Keywords:  Distance learning, Slow learners.
 

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Author :Dr. Majed M. AlAli - Dr. Buad M. AlKhales
Discipline :Educational Psychology

Moral Competencies and Ways to Develop Them among Secondary School Teachers in Hawally Education District in the State of Kuwait

The major aim of this study was to identify the level of moral competencies among secondary school teachers in the Hawally Educational District in the State of Kuwait. Moreover, the study sought to investigate ways of developing moral competencies from the teachers' point of view.  Method:  The questionnaire was the main tool for the study. The questionnaire included the Moral Competencies questioner and a personal interview. The validity and reliability of the instruments were established. A sample of 152 male and female secondary schools teachers was randomly selected from the State of Kuwait.  Results:  The results showed that the degrees of moral competencies among secondary school teachers were very high in the dimensions of Respect and Sympathy, and they were high in the other dimensions and the overall score. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences in the teachers' opinions according to gender differences in favor of females. However, there were no statistically significant differences according to their specialization, educational qualification, and years of experience. Finally, there were differences in the concept of moral competencies among teachers.  Conclusion:  The conclusion of the current study highlighted the importance of caring to moral competencies among teachers to achieve high quality educational outcomes and results.
 
 Keywords:  Moral competencies, Secondary school teachers.
 

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Author :Dr. Hasan A. Abbas - Prof. Kamel M. Rouibah
Discipline :Information Systems- Management

Trust and System Quality on the Actual Usage of E-Government in Kuwait Using TAM (in English)

Objectives:  The aim of this study is to determine the impact of trust in e-government and system quality on the actual usage of e-government in an Arab country. Method:  A modified TAM model was developed and tested over a sample of 465 actual users. Validity and reliability were used alongside latent construction and discriminant validity. Furthermore, structured equation modeling (LISREL 8.4) was used to validate the research model. Results:  Results show that trust in e-government increased perceived usefulness (PU) and decreased actual usage. System quality increase perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use (PEOU), and actual usage. PEOU increases PU and actual usage. Finally, PU decreases actual usage. Conclusion:  Results successfully show that trust in e-government and system quality do have an indirect effect on the actual use through the mediation of PEOU and PU. And for the first time we found that both PU and trust decrease actual usage.

Keywords:  Trust in e-government, System quality, Perceived usefulness, Perceived ease of use, TAM, Actual usage, Arab country, Kuwait, Middle East.
 

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