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Volume :12 Issue : 48 1994      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Salman Rayyes and his Report of 931/1525 (in Arabic)

Auther : Faisal Al-Kandari

Salman Rayyes was a Turkish captain in the service of the Mamluks. Nothing has been known about his childhood. This article describes his role as an Ottoman captain in the Red Sea at the beginning of the 10 th\ 16 th century, and embraces comments on his report which he submitted to Ibrahim Pasha, the grand vizier. Salman Rayyess name was recorded for the first time in 922\1516, when he accompanied Amir Husain Al-Kurdi on his second expedition to India which, however, never reached further than Aden. They were able to take Zabid, but failed to take Aden. Then they returned to Jidda, when they learnt that Sultan Selim had taken Egypt in 923/1517.

After Husain Al-Kurdi had been killed, Salman Rayyes returned to Egypt with some Portuguese prisoners, probably intending to present his petition to Sultan Selim. While Salman Rayyes was in Egypt, the revolt of Ahmed Pasha broke out in 930/1524. Salman fled to Jidda, where he induced Husain Al-Rumi, the governor of Jidda, to make another expedition against Yemen. On their way, they attacked the Portuguese in Kamaran island, killing many and taking others as prisoners. After this, Salman advanced alone with some troops intending to capture the towns of Yemen. Because of Salmans cruel treatment of the inhabitants of Yemen they naturally preferred Husain to Salman, which led the latter to become jealous and return to Egypt.

The grand vizier, Ibrahim Pasha, went to Cairo in 931/1525 to establish order after the disturbance caused by the revolt of Ahmed Pasha. Salman went to see Ibrahim Pasha in order to present a report to him, in which he described the state of the weapons and ships which were in Jidda. Then he underlined the importance of the trade in the Indian Ocean and the Portuguese movements there. He asked the grand vizier to dispatch him on a campaign to subdue Yemen and to drive the Portuguese out of India.

Salman went to Yemen with Khair al-Din Hamza. They were able to capture some cities, but later a dispute broke out between the two leaders, which led Khair al-Din to send his men to cut off Salmans head in 934/1528.

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