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Volume :10 Issue : 38 1990      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Positivism in Geography (in Arabic)

Auther : Mohammad Ali AI-Farrah

Positivism is connected with the naturalistic - pragmatic trend in modern thought. Since the 1950s, positivism has dominated most of Western countries, particularly the English-speaking world and Scandinavia.Positivism in some connections is called empiricism.lt is central to this thesis that science can only concern itself with empirical questions, i.e. those with a factual content. Empirical questions are questions about how things are in reality. In this context reality is defined as the world which can be sensed. This means that science is concerned with objects in the world.The concept of positivism was established by Auguste Comte during the 1830s in France. In the 1920s a group of logical positivists founded in Vienna what was then called Vienna Circle under the leadership of Rudolf Carnap. The group pursued a modern development of positivism and extended its fundamental principles by arguing that formal logic and pure mathematics as well as the evidence of senses provide sure knowledge.Due to the application of positivism in Geography in the 1950s, geographers were divided into two parties: the traditional geographers believe that geography is idiographic science, since it describes the unique, and it is not at the same level with the natural sciences which can formulate laws and theories.On the opposite side the new generations of geographers hold the opinion that geography is nomothetic, as natural sciences which are characterised by hypothetic-deductive method, well developed quantitative techniques, and the establishment of laws. Anyhow the aim of this paper is to shed some light on positivism in the geogrpahic thought.

 

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