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Volume :1 Issue : 3 1981      Add To Cart                                                                    Download

Componential Analysis Of Words (in Arabic)

Auther : Ahmad Mukhtar Omar

This article deals with two points. First, how to analyze words of multiple meanings into their component parts or meanings. Second, how to analyze single meanings into their distinctive features.

As to the point, Katz and Fodor were the first to introduce a complete theory (1963). Their theory atomizes each meaning into a series of primary features arranged in a way that allows moving from the general to the particular, each meaning is defined by following a straight line beginning with a grammatical marker, then a semantic maker and ending with a distinguisher.

It is also possible to apply this theory to different lexical units. Semantic markers are the elements which denote that binary words such as girl: boy, woman: man and aunt: uncle are opposite by sex.

Besides, linguists apply this theory when they study metaphorical and figurative expressions. It shows how meaning can be changd by addition or omission of some semantic markers.

Concerning the second point, it is possible to study and bring together all distinctive features of each single meaning, then putting these features in a diagram, a table or a binary opponent shape. It is also helpful to apply such a theory when solving problems such as;

1. figurative and true meanings.

2. Semantic fields.

3. How children quire words.

4. Synonyms.

5. Homonomy and polysemy.


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