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Volume : 40 Issue : 159 2022

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Author :Ali bin Hassan Alnajae
Discipline :History

Making Reference to Historical Precedents in Sultanic Etiquette Books: The Book "Adab al-Muluuk" by Abu Mansour al-Tha’albi as a Case Study (in Arabic).

History is the free space through which the human experience can be discovered in the past, and benefited from in the present. In the existing Sultanic etiquette books, there is a great deal of making reference to and quoting from history in its different eras, and across its remote geographical places. Reference has been made to a variety of issues, and  a lot of quotations have been taken from historical narratives, facts, and incidents, all justified considering this a phenomenon to be investigated in this paper  by adopting the historical-structural approach, with special reference to the book, The Etiquette of Kings by al-Tha’albi, both sources as two case studies, and with a view of investigating the causes of this phenomenon, and the rationale behind the obsession of making reference to history.
The study has revealed that some of these causes are related to the pragmatic field (particularly to the author), and some are historical ones surrounding the author and the text he produced; yet, some of them are related to the structure of the text itself.
The study also has shown that the reason why historicity was immanent in al-Tha’albi’s works is wired with the fact that he wanted to present himself as one of the educated elites, a class that is keen on pushing the wheels of the march of the state. This entailed that he possesses an encyclopedic knowledge on history so that he can make reference to it..
The study has recommended exercising this integrative systematic practice which delves deep into the texts, analyzes and deconstructs them, and resolves their ambiguities and problems, by studying the text sometimes, by studying its author, or by linking the text to its author at other times, away from the traditional unilateral interpretation that focuses on a certain angle of the text, without paying attention to the other angles and without paying attention to the unthinkable concepts and perceptions that determine the viewpoint of the writers of the Sultanate etiquette in the political field.
Keywords: Sultanic etiquette; Abu Mansour al-Tha’albi; the etiquette of kings; the phenomenon of making reference to history.

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Author :Shamlan al-Qenaie, Mohammad al-Hamad, Dhari al-Otaibi
Discipline :English Language and Literature

“Wallah, I’m Sorry!”: Apologetic Strategies Used Among L2 English Speakers in Kuwait.

This study explores the speech act of apology generally and the apologetic strategies used by students at Kuwait University in particular. The study examines two groups: graduates from private schools (British and American systems; taught mainly in English) and graduates from governmental schools (taught mainly in Arabic.) Ten situations were adopted for the discourse completion task (DCT) with the core objective of determining which group has greater access to the full range of apologetic strategies. The results indicate that the students who graduated from private schools have greater access than their governmental counterparts. They, hence, exhibit greater culture awareness of the English language.  Interestingly, the results show that the students who graduated from governmental schools were the only students who invoked the name of Allah (God) in their apologetic responses.
Keywords: Speech Acts, Apology, Apologetic Strategies, CCSARP, Kuwait, Kuwaiti Arabic, Dialectology, Sociolinguistics.

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Author :Fatima Alsalem
Discipline :Mass Communication

Social Media-Related FOMO (Fear of Missing out on Opportunities) Among Kuwaiti Youths (in Arabic).

The present study investigates the effect of Social Media usage on youths’ psychological wellbeing, by drawing on the Social Comparison Theory and FOMO (fear of missing out on opportunities). Based on a large purposive survey sampling technique of Kuwaiti youths (N=4275), the current survey study investigates how using Social Media and following influencers’ content can have affect the youths’ psychologically and socially. This study adopts a cross-sectional survey methodology, as to test five hypotheses. Findings indicate that the first hypothesis (i.e. the rate of using Social Media) has been found to have an impact on the youth’s psychology, and that the second one, i.e., that the variable of psychology affects that of FOMO holds true. A strong statistical correlation has proved the worse the psychological state, the more intensified FOMO feelings. In verifying the third hypothesis, the variable ‘the rate of following up with influencers via Social Media’, has been found to affect the social comparison variable, i.e.,  the higher the number of influencers’ followers in Social Media, the higher the number of those who draw social comparison among the youth. The fourth hypothesis has been accepted in that there is a statistical correlation between the variable ‘the rate of following up with influencers via Social Media’ and the FOMO, and so the study validated such a hypothesis that the former variable affects the latter. It turned out that the higher the rate of using Social Media by the youth, the more heightened FOMO feelings.
The study wraps up by recommending conducting further studies that focus on the psychological and social impact of using Social Media on youths. The study also recommends conducting further research that aims at exploring the effects of FOMO and social comparison on youths and other groups and at educating young people about the dangers and negative consequences of extensive use of Social Media through media education and reach-out campaigns.
Keywords: social media, FOMO, social comparison, influencers, well-being.

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Author :Abdulaziz Alholibi
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Terminology Related to Shelter & Human Aggregation in the Book, Riyāḍ Aṣ-ṣāliḥīn: A Semantic Study (in Arabic).

This study offers an overview of the Semantic Fields Theory, which the researcher draws upon in his classification of the terms extracted from the book, Riyāḍ Aṣ-ṣāliḥīn. In its applied component, the study relies on the descriptive approach, which draws on the concepts of the Semantic Fields Theory. The researcher categorizes the relevant terms in terms of four semantic fields: shelter-related terms, human aggregation-related terms, building structure-related terms, and building material-related terms. After the classification of these terms, the researcher has used many semantic tools to study them, with the aim of determining the accurate semantics of these terms by the Arabic dictionaries, and by analyzing their internal constituting components.
The study includes a set of tables that facilitate the reading of the internal constituting components of such terms, and shows the points of semantic convergence. In addition, there are some tables offered on their semantic relationships.
In this study, reference has been made to a set of semantic notions, such as context of the word, multiplicity of meaning in different contexts for the same lexical item, congruence or incongruence between the lexical meaning and dictionary one, using the semantic correlative, determining meaning through collocation, and highlighting the distinctive semantic features of these terms.
Keywords: semantic fields, semantic analysis, semantic relations, shelter, human aggregations.

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Author :Huda Abdulhalim
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

On the Problematics of Criticism Terms: al-San'ah (Affectation) as a Case Study (in Arabic).

This paper aims at exploring the problems associated with al-San'ah (affectation), and the semantic changes it has undergone in different contexts. It also sheds light on the importance of idiomatic awareness, needed for setting the standards for the terminology relevant to the corpus of the ancient criticism, via the term al-San'ah. It was of great importance for the majority of the ancient scholars, who handled it through an issue, by which they were extremely engrossed, that is the dichotomy of al-Tab' and al-Takalluf or al-Tab' and al-San'ah, where the importance of this study stems from, let alone its peculiarity in unearthing the terminological nature and significations of such a term. This is clearly achieved through handling the problems that relate to the multiplicity of the significations associated with such a term, and which led to a blurry concept, the main problem in the study. Such a conceptual blurriness has been examined here in terms of two aspects: the semantics of the term, and the existing contradiction between the different denominations of the term al-san'ah, or that related to its morphological derivatives, such as al-sinaa'ah, al-masnou', al-tasannu', and al-tasnee'. To achieve this, the study has adopted the descriptive-analytical approach to examine all the semantic changes, which the term al-san'ah has undergone, including its derivatives. One of the findings the study has arrived at is the urgent need to investigate the ancient criticism terminology in its contexts. Al-san'ah has a neutral concept that can either be looked at either unfavorable, and at the same time, it has multiple contradictory significations. Thus, context is the decisive factor in shaping such significations, as it provides thought accumulation that can be the basis for framingworking the corpus of terminology of ancient criticism and their etymologies. Such a corpus reflects a kind of unawareness about terminology, which can be accounted for by the nature of the initial stages, which can not be compared with the progress and advances made by modern sciences in setting the bases for terminology in all fields. Therefore, this study recommends that it is necessary for the academies of Arabic language to give special care to terms, by not just restricting their effort to the linguistic side of them, without paying attention to their conceptual one. It is also important for these academies to have concerted efforts by forming ad hoc committees in every respective field of knowledge.  
Keywords: Al-san'ah, critical terms, problematicities of terms, semantic transformation of terms.

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Author :Hanan Alkhalaf
Discipline :Philosophy

Social Space from Merleau-Ponty’s Existential Phenomenology Perspective: A Critical Study of Emile Durkheim’s Method (in Arabic).

This paper provides a detailed exposition to the defective aspects in Emile Durkheim’s method in studying social phenomena, which he tackles in his book “The Rules of Social Method”. This has been achieved through drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy of embodiment, through which, it has been possible to show the false and limited ontological and epistemological results of Durkheim’s method in studying social phenomenon.
The failure and limitedness of Durkheim’s research project is related to being influenced by both Cartesian dualism and positivism. This paper highlights the influence of these two perspectives on constituting Durkheim’s method and opinions, especially those related to their ontological aspect which explains social phenomena as things, followed by their epistemological aspect, which relates to the external properties of these things.
This paper adopts Merleau-Ponty’s existential phenomenology method, which can reveal the level of embodied consciousness which, in turn, can pave the way for the self to be opened to a social world as an embodied self. This method also suggests solutions which paves the way towards revealing the reality of social phenomena as well as highlighting the roots, values, and limits of the knowledge of sociologists.
Accordingly, this paper explores the crises of human sciences presented by Merleau-Ponty, with a view to showing the importance of the existential and phenomenological studies in explaining the origins of social phenomena and how they are shaped in the world. The importance of such a method, in our view, emanates from its influential contribution to social studies, which is achieved on the basis of intersubjectivity, structural relationships, primacy of perception, and embodied knowledge, the basis of which constitutes the ontological and epistemological understanding of social phenomena.  
Keywords: Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Emile Durkheim, Existential Phenomenology, Embodiment.

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Author :Boudjemaa Bouhafs
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Novel, History, and the Problem of Interference (in Arabic).

This study seeks to shed light on the novel's work on history, which opens the door to questions about the novel's relationship to history, which has been the object of controversy between novelists and critics. This constitutes the research problem, which has entailed digging into the genealogy of the relationship between the novel and the story, and attempting to find out if  there are any differences between the historical novel and the novel which uses history to pass on specific visions and ideas? Does the literary re-writing of history help direct public opinion? Or is the relationship between the novel and history one of reciprocal motherhood and breastfeeding? Or is it a marriage relationship to produce an intricate paper creature that bears the characteristics of both parents? Can the novel be considered a reliable source of historical information? Therefore, this piece of research aims to reveal the deeply-rooted relationship between the novel and history and to show the extent to which the novel can be inspired by history to help shape the cultural identities of nations. How can the narrative material depend on the facts of history that enrich the narrative? In other words, is the novel a source of history, or is history a source for the novel? And, how valid is the term historical novel?
 Therefore, through this research paper, we will try to clarify some terms related to the subject, including fiction, history, narrative fiction, historical fiction, historical novel, and other related terms. To achieve all of this, we have adopted the descriptive and analytical approach that we consider consistent with this piece of research. This study has made some conclusions, including:
- The novel has several meanings, which has made it difficult to define it precisely due to its recent emergence and continued development.
- The definitions have varied and multiplied in the characterization of the term history for Western scholars and philosophers, as well as for Arab Muslims.
- As for the relationship that the novel establishes with history, it is a new one that depends mainly on the technical questioning of history.
- The term historical imagination is a new term that enters the field of Arab narrative and modern critical studies by the researcher Abdullah Ibrahim in his new book Historical Imagination: Narration, Empire, and the Colonial Experience.
Keywords: fiction, history, imagination, relation, narration, accountable, literature.

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Author :Ahmad Aljanadbah
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Speech Act of Promise Among Arabic Native and Non-Native Speakers: A Pragmatic-Comparative Study (in Arabic).Heading

Speech Act Theory has received a great deal of attention in pragmatics studies, especially in the field of teaching and acquiring foreign languages. The majority of previous studies have focused mostly on learning English as a Second language, while learning Arabic as a second language has not received the same attention in related Speech Act theory studies. Therefore, the present study seeks to fill this gap in the relevant Arabic literature by examining one speech act studied by L2 learners of Arabic, that is 'the act of promise', through looking into the types of promise acts that are more likely to be used by Arabic L2 learners, and how the performance of these learners differs from the that of native Arabic speakers.
Forty respondents participated in this study through administering a questionnaire. The respondents have been divided into two groups: twenty students are Arabic L2 learners, and the other twenty are native Arabic speakers. The Discourse Completion Task (DCT) tool, i.e., the questionnaire, which comprises ten situations, has been used to collect the data for this study, and has been analyzed using both the quantitative and qualitative approaches. The findings of the study quantitatively show that on one hand, there are differences between Arabic L2 learners, and native Arabic speakers in terms of the usage and frequency of use of promise act types. On the other hand, analysis qualitatively indicates that when examining the participants’ utterances, L2 learners’ performance in terms of using the promise act differs from that of native Arabic speakers. In addition, the study shows that the language level of L2 learners had no positive effect on their performance related to the promise act, which further explains the difference in their pragmatic performance compared to that of native speakers.
Keywords: Speech Acts, Linguistics Competence, Pragmatic Competence, Promise.

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