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Volume : 40 Issue : 158 2022

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Author :Husain Murad, Salah al-Fadhli, Ali Dashti
Discipline :Mass Communication

Students’ Perceptions of Distance Learning During the Corona Pandemic Crisis: The Kuwaiti Private Universities as a Case Study.

The coronavirus pandemic was a real challenge for many governments and private entities, especially for educational institutions around the world. Schools and universities were forced to consider adopting distance learning (DL), rather than the traditional face-to-face teaching method. Although several studies suggest that DL can be as effective as traditional classroom teaching, a few studies have focused on student satisfaction with online instruction, particularly during a period of rapid transition to distance learning. This study investigates the level of student acceptance of distance learning in private universities in Kuwait. The factors which are examined in the study are technology, social presence, and the quality of learning. The sample of the study consists of student-participants taken from five private universities in Kuwait who answered the online questionnaire. The findings suggest that to enhance the DL environment, universities need to address those factors seriously in order to help students adapt to the new learning environment. The paper concludes that DL requires different circumstances than these required for the face-to-face setting. Understanding students’ attitudes toward DL is the key to developing and implementing successful online learning.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Students’ Perceptions, Private University, Traditional learning, Quality of learning.

 

DOI:  10.34120/0117-040-158-009

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Author :Anwar Aljazaf
Discipline :Mass Communication

Twitter’s Coverage for the Hashtag # Corruption Cases in the State of Kuwait: An Analytical Study (in Arabic).

The study aims to identify the most prominent corruption cases that were addressed by Twitter application, relevant to the Kuwaiti affairs via the hashtag # Kuwait _Corruption by analyzing the content of a sample of tweets marked with the # sign.
As far as the methodology is concerned, data have been collected with the Content Analysis tool. The study relied on the survey sampling technique of all what has been posted on Twitter about the Kuwaiti case. This included a sample of tweets that amounted to 78079 tweets during the period from January 1, 2020 to January 1, 2021 via the hashtag # Kuwait_Corruption.
The findings have shown that the majority of tweets related to corruption cases in Kuwait were of unknown source, and made a percentage of 68.3%. The study has also shown that there are significant differences in the priorities of attention to different corruption cases in the tweets, according to their source, and the differences were in favor of tweets that were issued by unknown source. Analysis has revealed that the relationship between the trend of negative corruption case tweets, and the anonymous source of these tweets was strong. The study recommended the necessity of passing legislations that can protect whistleblowers of corruption cases, focusing on studies that try to reveal the reasons for the association of political, academic, religious, and media elites with corruption in the State of Kuwait, and carrying out a study to measure the effectiveness of Media Richness Theory in non-democratic countries.
Keywords: Twitter, corruption, content analysis, hashtag, Social media applications, Kuwait.
 

DOI:  10.34120/0117-040-158-004

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Author :Dalila Zeghoudi
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Fruit of Nothingness the Anthology of Departure and Alienation in Al-Sahraa’ (The Desert) Novel (in Arabic).

Truffles are born suddenly when transient rain in autumn falls in the thirsty desert. It’s a seedless fruit that grows without roots. When it dies, it leaves no seeds and no effects. In his works, Ibrahim Al-Koni devotes a well-known space for this and he ponders on this challenging miracle, after having made it the center of his big philosophical and ontological questions. This article attempts to trace the ontological turning points traversed by the path of the truffle fruit through a set of Al-Koni’s novels, and what its confusing history suggests as evidence of the mysterious existential situation after he compares it to  the spectral existence of man, and after he gives the desert nomad as a model example. So, what is the ontological situation revealed by the aesthetic investment of truffles in Ibrahim Al- Koni’s narrative works How did he take advantage of the life cycle of this strange desert truffle in drawing the ontological line of man in this universe The present study  adopts multiple methodologies of investigation as dictated by the nature of Al- Koni's texts. Such texts are intersections between religion and mythology; they strengthen the relationship between sociology and anthropology; they roam the corridors of psychology, and echo the folkloric legacy of the Touaregs. Truffles were planted at their junction points, and - in their intersections - the larger ontological question of survival and annihilation has been raised. Thus, adopting a single specific approach impossible, and it is rather knowledge that has been invested in the analysis, which shaped out the mythological approach, and which has appropriated the largest share of it, in line with the requirements of the texts.
This methodological admixture made it possible to touch upon what lies behind the obscurity of the ambiguity that Al-Sahraa’ novel - according to Ibrahim Al-Koni - tries to result in a fictional experiment that goes beyond the classics of the modern novel,  and which denies the human deity on which it is based. This enables nature to restore its authority that has been robbed by modernism, and selects from its assets water, stones, and the truffles to make out of them heroes of his narrative epics. It is a kind of lifting to the religious and mythical affairs that are central to modern novel, and to what the anthropological legacy of unknown peoples such as the Touaregs overlooked by civilization and what modern civilization has ignored from the hymns of nomadism and human instinct. Ibrahim Al-Koni epitomizes them in the life cycle of truffles, and tries through them to present his vision on the existence of the being in this world and what such an existence means.
Keywords: Ontology, truffles, sin, desert, paradise, purification, death, salvation.

 

DOI:  10.34120/0117-040-158-002

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Author :Maha Alkhudair
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Syntactic and Morphological Issues in the Commentary of ‘Lamiyyat Al-Ajam’ Poem by Abu al-Buqa 'al-Akbari (d.616 A.H.) (in Arabic).

This study is intended to address “the syntactic and morphological issues handled by ‘Abu Albaga’a Al’akbary (died 616 HD) in his commentary of “Lamiyyat Al’ajem poem”, as he was the first to comment on and/or annotate it. This poem covers thirteen issues, with seventeen rules offered in an inductive-descriptive approach. The importance of this study stems from the fact that it provides for the readers a new scholarly work for “Al’akbary”, where he used the formal Arabic poetry, to be added to his other works that focus on The Holy Qur’an and Hadith and that bear witness to his extensive knowledge and education. Despite its significance, this work did not receive much attention from other scholars, as it offers ‘audacious’ syntactic and morphological accounts, supported by poetry, as one valid source of evidence within the context of Arabic syntax. Al’akbary’s accounts relied on the syntactic functions of stretches in the renowned poem “Al-Tagra’ay” that literary Arabs and others took interest in, and that was translated into several languages, for the high moral values and sublime precepts it contained.
The study aims to highlight this new work for “Al’akbary” for those interested, and to draw their attention to it through collecting these issues and/or topics and analyzing them by reviewing the syntacticians’ views, by highlighting the approach they go in line with, and by classifying Al’akbary’s views. It also aims to offer further syntactic evidence drawn from Arabic poetry to support the uses and usages of such issues or rules, a practice that is meant to prove that the poetry that came after the ‘argumentation ages’ can lend supporting evidence to these rules and standards.
One of the conclusions of this study is that it has been possible to show the importance of his commentary which stands out as a reference point or a source for water-tight evidence and/or conclusive judgements for syntactic and linguistic studies.  The study also reveals the defining characteristics of Al’akbary’s scientific character that has a tendency for language economicality and for caring about justifying a lot of rules to convince others with evidence. In addition, the study offers another piece of evidence that “Al’akbary” is following the ‘Basra school of thought’, and it also shows the agreement of “Al-Tagra’ay” poem with the rules of the ‘Basra school of thought’.
Thus, the study recommends considering this poem as a source from which supporting evidence can be drawn on syntactic and morphological issues and their compatibility with syntacticians’ standards. The study also  calls on reconsidering a lot of Arabic poems that came after the ‘argumentation ages’ and the extent to which they are consistent with the rules and the properly-set standards and the extent to which they employ strong evidence on their uses and usages.
Keywords: Issues, syntactic, morphological, Al’akbary, Lamiyyat Al’-Ajam.

 

DOI:  10.34120/0117-040-158-003

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Author :Abdulqader Steeh
Discipline :History

Palestine: From Mamluk Provinces to the Ottoman Vilayet of Jerusalem (1516-1517 AD) and Sultan Salim First Visit to Jerusalem (in Arabic).

The year 1516 A.D. witnessed the entry of the southern region of the Levant (the prosecution offices of Safad, Jerusalem, and Gaza) under the Ottoman rule to usher in a new era in the history of this country that spanned over four centuries later. During the Ottoman campaign against Egypt, Sultan Salim I passed through this area and then derailed his campaign, to visit the city of Jerusalem. This raises a number of questions about how this region transferred from The Mamluk sovereignty to The Ottoman  one, along with new administrative divisions, and the subtle messages that Sultan Selim’s visit to Jerusalem can send out.
This study, and based on sources narrated by accompanies of Sultan Selim, written in both Ottoman and Persian, in addition to local Arab sources, attempts to shed light on the transfer of the southern region of The Levant from The Mamluk sovereignty to Ottoman one, the changes in the administrative divisions that accompanied this transfer, following the passage of the Ottoman Sultan Selim I through the region, and his visit to the city of Jerusalem. The study also attempts to explain the subtle messages that this visit transmits.
The study followed the historical method by gathering information from its sources, reading between the lines and/or reading texts and sub-texts, and then classifying, comparing, analyzing, combining, and formulating it in its final form.
The study has concluded that the Mamluks attempted to retain the southern region of The Levant, due to its strategic and religious importance. However, their attempts were unsuccessful in the face of the Ottoman's determination to annex the region. It also has shown that the changes made by the Ottomans in the administrative structure of the region, which would have led to the demarcation of the borders of a state that would include the southern regions of The Levant in an administrative unit with Jerusalem as its capital; yet, it did not stand for long, thereby highlighting the subtle messages that Sultan Salim's visit to Jerusalem had carried. This emphasizes the right of the Ottoman Empire to lead the Islamic world from the moment when its Sultan entered Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The study has recommended that it is necessary to combine sources in various languages and forms in order to depict the events that had occurred, and to close the historical gaps left by the unilateral dependence on certain sources while neglecting others.
Keywords: Jerusalem, Safed, Gaza, Hebron, Battle of Khan Younis, Sultan Selim I.

DOI:  10.34120/0117-040-158-005

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Author :Khitam al-Khouli
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Levels of Language in Ibrahim Nasr-Allah's Novel "Toyour Al-Hathar" (in Arabic).

This paper aims at investigating the levels of language in the novel "Toyour Al-Hathar" for Ibrahim Nasr-Allah. It is one of the most important novels of Ibrahim Nasr-Allah that deal with suffering, exile, displacement, and misery that the characters, exiled from their land, lived. Thus, the events, characters, situations, and narration require variation in the levels of language that expressed a human, social, political, and economic vision that appeared through the events and the roles of characters.     
Studying the levels of language in the novel "Toyour Al-Hathar" is an important issue as it is based on a variety of language levels in the novel. The characters differ in their cultural and social levels, and thus, the situations and events uncover the variation in language in the novel, and this requires a close reading of the language structure, on which the novel is based.
This study aims at uncovering the levels of language in the novel "Toyour Al-Hathar" for Ibrahim Nasr-Allah, through focusing on the language structure in order to show that there are many language levels in the novels that could reflect the vision of the author, who made variation in language on basis of situation, event, and character.  
The study is analytically based, as it analyzes the language structure in the novel, i.e., the study focuses on language that the novelist formed in the novel. This method can show the implications of language levels and their link with the vision from which the novel launches.
The study has shown that the language employed in the novel has many levels, such as the poetic and its influence on the reader, and the colloquial represented in the proverbs and daily language and folklore, in addition to dialogue which is based on irony and repetition. The most important conclusion is that the study has highlighted the role of language variation, the difference in the levels of language, and the role of that in the structure of the novel work.   
The study recommends that further studies to be made on the language of the novel, due to its importance in showing the importance of language and its content, and for more research on dictionaries for most Arab novelists.
Keywords: Nasr Allah, levels, language, Toyour Al-Hathar.

DOI:  10.34120/0117-040-158-006

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Author :Theyab Alburaas, Hamad Alqahtani
Discipline :History

Kuwaiti-French Relations: A Reading of Selected Documents from the French Archives 1866-1900 (in Arabic).

This study discusses the Kuwaiti French relations in the period between 1866-1900, a period that was pregnant with events and conflicts between the different colonizing powers, most notably Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Russia, by reviewing four French documents. The study mainly aims at shedding light on the political and social aspects of Kuwait in such a period of time, and at offering a perspective that is different from that embraced by other parties (i.e. the British documents).
The study attempts to raise multiple questions, on top of which is to gauge the depth of influence these Kuwaiti French relations exerted. Did these relations have any impact on the formation of the political structure in Kuwait? To what extent did individual personal agenda of French diplomats and officials play a part in facilitating these lines of communication between Kuwaiti and French diplomats? Did Kuwait and France succeed in creating a respectful mutual relationship despite the daunting hegemony of the British and the retreat of French militia from the Gulf? Do these French documents reveal any conflicts between Britain and France regarding administering influence over Kuwait? Lastly, did these documents have any impact on the natural role of the Kuwaiti society and its texture and values in determining what works in its interest on a political level? The study adopts the historical-analytic method, and it starts by giving an overview on the nature of French Kuwaiti relations, then it moves on to analyze the four French documents. In selecting the documents needed here, it has been taken into consideration the independent nature of Kuwait’s relationship with the Ottomans as well as Britain. In the second part, the study provides further analysis for a certain specific document, after the signing of the Kuwaiti-British treaty.
In conclusion, the study has shown that the history of Kuwaiti relations is connected to international powers in general and to the conflicts and events that the Gulf region saw in particular. The Sheikh of Kuwait or whoever represents him was the political and military leader of Kuwait- as evidenced by these documents. The study also has revealed that Kuwait was independent of the Ottoman rule.
Keywords: Political historic documents, Kuwaiti French relations, French influence in the gulf.

DOI:  10.34120/0117-040-158-007

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Author :Ahmed Al Marazeeq
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Transformation Pattern in the Poem "Atlas Assal" by Farazdaq: An Analytical-Cultural Reading (in Arabic).

The study aims to highlight the ability of cultural patterns to transform within poetic texts, and that it cannot be confined to the four parameters set by T. Parsons, namely, adaptation, ability to achieve a goal (goal capacity), integration, and balance. Thus, the study tackles an important issue that is cultural patterns have been restricted by cultural studies to two aspects: ugly or aesthetic. Therefore, the current study attempts to highlight two concomitant faces for cultural patterns that are at the same time contradictory to each other, based on the characteristics of the transformation pattern, and based on the descriptive-analytical approach. This investigation has a theoretical component and a procedural and analytical one. Analysis makes the conclusion that the case study, i.e., the text “Atlas Assal” by Al-Farazdaq contains rich cultural patterns. This indicates that he had a poetic ability to create alternatives in the appropriate circumstance. The study recommends that it is necessary to read poetic texts interpretively, i.e., hermeneutically that reveal their meanings and capture their linguistic ‘gymnastics and aerobatics’.  
Keywords: Atlas, Farazdaq, cultural, analytical, transformation, pattern.

DOI:  10.34120/0117-040-158-008

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