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Volume : 40 Issue : 160 2022

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Author :Hamdi Jabali
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Dropping of Feminine “Haa” in Arabic Poetry: A Reading in Arabic Linguistic Thought (in Arabic).

The current study aims at exploring words that are abundantly used in one of the main sources of Arabic rule regulation system, i.e. poetry. The investigated words include the feminine ‘haa’, but which has been dropped out. Such a dropping has confused Arab grammarians and linguists who tried to interpret it to find its causes and applications. However, since there have been different scholarly treatments, without  reaching a consensus about the various aspect of this drop, this study comes to resolve such an ambiguity related to the various attitudes of Arab grammarians and linguists towards it.  
To achieve the study objectives, the inductive approach has been adopted to clarify the confusion and trace the various examples in Arabic poetry as well as identify the trends of Arab linguists regarding this dropping in order to interpret it adequately. The study reviews the different trends and shows the similarities and differences between them.
The study reveals that Arabic allows the addition of feminine ‘haa’ to words for different purposes as set by Arab linguists and grammarians as shown in this study. The retain of this ‘haa’ has been stressed as it maintains clear-cut meanings; when the ‘haa’ is dropped out, these meanings may vanish or disappear, not excluding the semantic differences between them.
However, retaining the feminine ‘haa’ has not been always plausible and possible, as there have been many poetic texts that included words and phrases containing this ‘haa’ which has been left out. The researcher tried to trace some manifestations of this dropping in vocative and non-vocative cases as well as in genitive ones.
The current study attempts also to explore the various linguistic trends embraced by Arab linguists by investigating the various aspects, reasons, and justifications of such a dropping, whether or not it was acceptable by them, whether or not it was relatable to a poetic necessity, whether or not it was anomalous, and whether or not it was ascribable to something else. The study also reveals that the dropping of this ‘haa’ has not always been plausible; it has served different purposes; it has been used for poetic need; and, sometimes it has been completely weird.  
The findings also show that this kind of dropping has been done to ease the structure of the word and that it has been abundant in Arabic poetry in a way that shows the extent to which Arabic can extend its structures and words and that the language allows the dropping-out of the ‘haa’ that has been previously added to designate a new meaning.

Keywords: Drop, feminine ‘haa’, linguistic thought, poetry, masculine and feminine, vocative case.     
 

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Author :Doash Aldosary
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Value of Poetry and the Poet's Role in Mahmoud Darwish's Poetic Outlook: A Thematic Study (in Arabic).

 

The ancient Arab literary heritage and criticism gives great value to poetry and its role in society. The great importance of the poet and his great role in life was deeply rooted in society.
The poet Mahmoud Darweesh had a different outlook to this, as he does not go in line with this inherited idea as noticed in his poems and writings. Mahmoud Darweesh believes in the marginality of poetry and in the poet's normality. This view was repeated in his poetic texts.
The aim of this study is to trace this view in his poetry, analyze the aesthetic styles used to express it, and identifying the factors that led to the emergence of such an outlook, whether these are personal, social, historical, or political.
The study raises the following questions:
-    How did Mahmoud Darweesh view the value of poetry and poets in his works?
-    What are differences between his viewpoint and the other viewpoints in the Arab literary heritage and criticism?
-    What are the artistic styles that shaped his viewpoint?
-    What are the individual, collective circumstances and factors that led to the emergence of such an outlook?
The study adopted the thematic approach, which allows tracing the poet's view, analyzing it, and identifying the contexts where views are formulated.
This study concluded that Darwish has a different view on the value of poetry and the poets’ role, as he believes in the marginality of poetry and its transition from the text to the margin.
Darweesh's view was a personal one on his poetry alone. He sees that his poetry is an echo of previous texts and he describes himself as being marginalized. He also focuses on the human description rather than the creative one, and he does not see in himself the uniqueness of being a poet. Besides, he keeps denying the immortality of his poetry and its effectiveness in creating his poems.
 Such an outlook was formed by employing various methods of image and symbol, intertextuality, and contrast. There were personal reasons behind having such an outlook; Darwish's feeling of alienation from himself, the rootedness of exile in himself. Another factor is where the value of poetry and the role of the poet diminish viz-a-viz the occupation of Palestine and the human anguish.
Keywords: Mahmoud Darweesh, the value of poetry, the role of the poet, thematic.
 

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Author :Munir Tabbi
Discipline :Mass Communication

The Image of Tunisian Women in TV Drama: An Analytical-descriptive Study of the Series "Sons of Mofida", Part Five (in Arabic).

This study aims to identify the image of Tunisian women in television drama in terms of form and content; the problem of this study started from an attempt to describe and study gender-related stereotyping according to the gender-based roles and responsibilities that women suffer from in the Arab region in general, which often portrays Arab women in a negative and vulgar way that degrades their value within their societies. Among the most important tools and means used for this is media, especially TV drama, where the popularity of such a popular media product is exploited, especially in the holy month of Ramadan, where there is an increased production and display for portraying women mostly in a way that harms the status of women in society. Arab TV drama often depicts Arab woman as either a rape victim, an evil person, or a hateful, oppressed, jealous, or dishonoring person, who must be punished to preserve the family’s honor. This study adopts an analytical-descriptive approach, supported with the use of the content analysis tool to achieve such a goal. The population of the study is the TV dramas, and the series Ouled Moufida "Moufida Sons", Part Five has been selected as a sample case study here, which shows the extent to which this series has spread locally and in the Maghreb region. This study has made several conclusions, the most important of which are as follows: the family relations, emotional relations, and criminal acts are the most important Tunisian women’s issues dealt with in the selected sample series; there is a predominance of negative social roles associated with Tunisian women, in TV drama, in addition to many positive values related to Tunisian women in this series that have their own negative downside. The study has suggested several recommendations, including: conducting more research on gender-related stereotyping in media, specifically, on the image of women in Arab drama and cinema, attempting to reveal the shortcomings and mistakes in the media’s portrayal of Arab women, following up and assessing all forms of stereotypes, abuses, and professional errors in general, mainly those related to the industry of women image in Arab media.
Keywords: Image, Woman, Tunisian women, TV drama, Series.
 

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Author :Majdi Ben Souf
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Every Communicative Situation has its Own Context: Maqam (Context) in Al-Sakkaki’s Miftah Al-Ulum (in Arabic).

The famous statement in Miftah Al-Ulum “If you embark on speaking, every communicative situation has its own context” is considered one of the unique sayings in the Arabic rhetorical theory. It encapsulates the principal perception of the conditions that the speaker must consider the moment they begin to speak, in order to achieve the main purpose of communication that is informativity.
In this article, our purpose is not to examine the conditions of the Maqam (i.e. context), and its effect on the speaker,  as this issue has received enough attention research-wise; rather, our main goal is to demonstrate the possibility of doing a hypothetical reconstruction of the Maqam of the speaker's communicative situation, from the moment they embark on speaking to the moment of its completion; this reconstruction can be accurate in the sense that it can reveal the speaker's cognitive and informative state, based on the occurring linguistic structure.
The inductive-analytical approach has been adopted in this study to deal with the concept of Maqam in the Miftah Al-Ulum, within a broader conception of what Al- Sakkaki called the "science of literature".  
It has been concluded, in light of the scholarly treatment of this central statement that it represents one of the main keys in the rhetorical thinking of the Arabs, as it provides an understanding of the Maqam in a more accurate and in a wider picture than that circulated among the ancient.
Maqam, in Al- Sakkaki’s model, is built on three levels
-    An occurring Maqam which is completed the moment the speaker finishes their talk.
-    A gradual partially composite Maqam, changeable according to the requirements of speech.
-    A typical general Maqam that is a generally cognitive one.
For him, Maqam is composite and complex in the sense that it reverses the structural complexity of the utterance. Al-Sakkaki’s work Miftah Al-Ulum remains one of the self-closed and unearthed texts that opens the horizons for us in research, whenever we endeavor to address such a topic with modern linguistic tools.
Keywords: Al-Sakaki, syntactic complexity, Maqam (context), situation of context, informativity, representation, addressee.   
 

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Author :Hessah Al Dossary
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Self-glorification in Monsifat Poetry in the Jahili (Pre-Islamic) Era (in Arabic).

It is widely considered that Monsifat (fairness) Poetry dignifies the other and transcends subjectivity, which makes it distinctive from other contemporary poetry, as it exceeded the dominant social patterns at its time, which exalt tribalism, self-pride, and tribal affiliation.
This view raises the following questions: is Monsifat Poetry really stripped of subjectivity? Does it transcend the dominance of tribalism, and does it have an objective, neutral view on the other/enemy? Do poets of this kind violate their contemporary social patterns which take into consideration to humiliate the opponent in satirical poetry, in order to show up their noble morals and genuine origins by being honest with themselves and with the others in appreciating the strength of their enemy and praising their opponents?
This study attempts to answer these questions through studying the Jahili Monsifat Poetry, and extrapolating its textual contexts and semantic indicators. Firstly, the paper discusses what is meant by Jahili Monsifat Poetry in the ancient literature, then, it looks into this kind of poetry within the context where it was produced, by making reference to some relevant poems and the occasions in which they were written in order to highlight the rhetorical images of self-glorification and praise of the other, and to show how the self- pride prevails over praising the other. Then, analysis traces the most prominent semantic, verbal, and contextual indicators, which prove the poet's subjectivity that prevails over describing the other / enemy. Finally, analysis reveals the emotional paradox that resulted from a combination of mixed and contradictory feelings which ranged between self-pride and the desire to be fair with the opponent on one hand, and hating the enemy and praising them at the same time, on the other hand. This study adopts the descriptive-analytical approach in studying Jahili Monsifat Poetry. Through this approach, it becomes clear that whoever can come to terms with the label Jahili Monsifat Poetry and whoever can analyze this type of poetry within its social, cultural and literary context that produced it, would find out that subjectivity is obviously manifested in this poetry. This is a subjective poetry that revolves around individual and collective pride rather than being a poetry that gravitates around praising the other. Furthermore, this poetry goes in line with the prevailing social values in the Jahili era, which glorifies self-pride and tribal affiliation, and according to which honor and superiority is to transcend humiliating or disparaging the other.
Keywords: Jahili Era Literature, Ancient poetry, Jahili Monsifat Poetry, Subjectivity, the Other.   
 

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Author :Ekrema Shehab, Iman Rayyan
Discipline :English Language and Literature

Palestinian Inmates’ Jargon in Israeli Jails: A Pragmatic Account.

The purpose of this study is to pragmatically examine cryptic language Palestinian inmates employ on daily basis to communicate coded, secret messages among themselves and to mislead Israeli jailers. The pragmatic meaning of this special language reflects the harsh conditions of Palestinian security prisoners in all aspects of their routine social, military, and security life inside Israeli prisons. The data of the study have been collected from interviews with five newly freed Palestinian prisoners who served long sentences in the Israeli jails. For a better analysis, the data have been classified into metaphoric and non-metaphoric based on their situational use in the prison environment. The study found that although these terms have drifted from their original semantic usages and acquired new pragmatic applications initiated by Palestinian prisoners' needs for socializing, maneuvering, and security concerns, they still exhibit strong connection between their literal and pragmatic meanings. Put differently, in some cases, the pragmatic meaning of the terms used inside the prison conceptually maps their literal meaning outside the prison context. The study also has revealed that these terms convey different (indirect) speech acts of warning, threatening, command, and request in the prison context. We recommend other researchers to focus on the cryptic language of Palestinian female prisoners who might have needs and concerns that are different from those of the males’.   
Keywords: Pragmatic language, Palestinian inmates’ jargon, security prisoners, metaphoric illocutions, situational context.
 

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Author :Ali al-Anezi
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Theme of "Demise" as Referenced in Shakespeare's Theater: Hamlet as a Case Study (in Arabic).

This study is an examination of the theme of "demise", which occupied a pivotal space in the Elizabethan theater in general, and the works of William Shakespeare in particular. This study seeks to examine such a theme through ‘excavating the theatrical history’ and studying contemporary criticism of the great Elizabethan poet’s ideology and belief.
This research paper answers a set of questions, most notably: what are the reasons behind the noticeable rise of devilish assassinations on the theatre of a believer playwright such as Shakespeare? What lies behind all this on-stage violence, which leads to an increase in blood-thirst? What motivates the great English poet to give ghosts an important theatrical role? This study aims to explain why Shakespeare was preoccupied with this theme, which is a reflection of the Shakespearian theatre during the third period of his works, known as “The Overflowing Period”.
In order to draw valid and objective conclusions, the study has selected an indicative model in which the theme of "demise" controls the events of the play "Hamlet". This play clearly represents the doctrine of “demise”, as all the main characters perish, with the exception of some secondary ones who survive.
The conclusions of the study show that the concept of "demise" is close to the religious beliefs of Shakespeare. Based on this, it is clear, that the Catholic Church creed is reflected extensively, which is represented in the doctrine of "purgatory" during the aforementioned period. For this reason, the study recommends reading the theatrical processes from a critical-historical perspective. History leaves its marks that can be interpreted as a literary text through the fears, intellectual and political transformations imbedded in its pages.
Keywords: William Shakespeare, Hamlet, demise, purgatory, gender, chauvinism, Elizabeth I, Elizabethan age, theater criticism, Greenblatt.
 

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Author :Reem al-Rudaini
Discipline :History

Women’s History in Islam and Feminist Theories from the Sixties of the Last Century until Modern Era: A Historical Study (in Arabic).

The study of women’s history is regarded as one of the key disciplines in recent years. Although many texts continue to shed insufficient light on the female experience, the close relationship between contemporary feminist theories and the historical practices connected to women tends to dominate the scene. This paper outlines the various strategies for recording women’s history in Islam from the 1960s to the present. It also focuses on some innovative research approaches and concepts, as specialized academic reviews and analyses provide an invaluable platform for the successful execution of this pivotal task, which, in turn, contributes to the dissemination of knowledge in other fields as well. Based on all of this, the current article has addressed two important questions: (1) What is the academic writing style that characterizes texts tackling the history of Muslim women, and how did researchers utilize it after being influenced by the feminist movement? (2) Have feminist theories and trends contributed to shattering disillusionment and to rewriting of the history of women in Islamic texts? The methodology adopted in this paper is gender-based, as there is a connection between gender studies and the “history of women”. This connection has been developed as a reaction to the mainstream history that has been almost restricted to men, and which only reports on the outstanding events and achievements made by these men. As a result, women’s roles and their explicit or implicit events and achievements have been marginalized. However, this study focuses on both the masculine and feminine writings of the history of women in Islam, and the interconnectedness between the concepts of ethnicity, class, and identity. This is the main pillar for a genuine writing of history and for knowing the history of women, as being marginalized as a whole. The study finds out several reasons that can account for this: knowing the history and status of the marginalized ethnicities, understanding cultures in connection to relevant authorities, and understanding the relationship between men and women, within the broader human-to-human context. Therefore, all of this should be invested in effectively by understanding women’s history without eliminating any marginalized group of the society and by involving all its different categories from all walks of life, by recognizing that the heritage that dominates the public awareness is far away from such gender-based approaches. So, this dominance and its related thought control should be broken down, women should be re-involved, and men’s discourse should be dismantled as to re-narrate events, as the writing of women’s history in Islam is nothing more than the writing of a new history through re-examining silent eras.
Keywords: Gender, feminist, citizenship, dominance, the marginalized, gender-based approach, women’s history.
 

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