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Volume : 38 Issue : 149 2020

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Author :Ilgiz Royanov, Sahar Mulhem
Discipline :Music

Performance Analysis of Two Piano Works by Saidaminova (in Arabic).

Dilorom Saidaminova is one of the Uzbeck composers whose careers began to rise in the last decades of the twentieth century. Although they were clearly influenced by the great composers of the Russian-Soviet school, and despite their contemporary methods of writing, filled with dissonance and tension, these composers reflected in their music the nationalist spirit of the people in their society as well as their folk culture. Given the complexity of their scores and new writing methods, it became necessary to analyze the performance of the scores.
This includes examining the author’s style of writing, his methods of expression, the techniques used in piano pedaling, and how familiar he is with the structural characteristics of the score, seeing as that enables him to transform the silent score into an audible expressive entity. 
The research presents a theoretical approach to performance analysis. It clarifies what is required to understand the rules of a score’s composition. These rules direct the process, through which the author’s artistic visions are elicited, and they help develop diverse expressive styles of performance. This, in turn, justifies the multiple possibilities and different aspects of performance, for the performer would adopt a style based on his knowledge and technical expertise and what coincides with his cultural, environmental and spiritual background. The paper presents a brief biography of the Uzbek composer Saidaminova along with a list of her piano works, followed by the performance analysis of two different types of her piano works. 

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Author :Mekki Saadallah
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

The Geopoetics Approach to Interpreting Travel Literature (in Arabic).

Contemporary Arabic criticism opens up to contemporary Western critical approaches (contextual and stylistic) in order to attract that which is masked. Through new readings and interpretations that transcend the stereotypes established according to classical standards, the meanings of signs are revealed.
Studies and applied researches have proved the limitations of these classical standards and their inability to understand the aesthetic, conceptual, and structural components of texts.
Approaching a text from a Western critical perspective is regarded to be in line with the growth of globalization and the technological revolution in the worlds of communication and information, as well as with the new theories of reception. In light of the fact that the concept of the ‘Death of the Author’ had spread and gained popularity, these theories strive to respect the cognitive systems of the reader.
This research seeks to define the Geopoetic theory of the Scottish poet, Kenneth White, who resides in Paris, and its applications in Travel Literature, for this genre of literature deeply addresses topics of place, earth, and ature.   

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Author :Ahmad Alhasan
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Transition Paths from Lexicalization to Grammaticalization: A Reading of Some Grammatical Tools (in Arabic).

This research addresses some originally lexical units that underwent one or more linguistic changes. As a result, they transformed into grammatical units that carried either weak (not full) or no lexical meaning.
Adopting the hypothesis that some grammatical units were originally full lexical units is a risky venture due to the absence of historical sequences and any indication that changes had developed throughout time. However, a number of old grammarians had mentioned some information relevant to the topic. Yet, another transitional path from grammaticalization to lexicalization also exists, but this does not disprove the paper’s hypothesis, for both paths aim to preserve grammatical and lexical units.  
In view of the above and according to the researcher’s theoretical based methodology, the study is divided into two sections:
The first section is theoretical, in which the researcher strives to frame "grammaticalization" as a modern lingual concept that displays the origin of some tools of lexical units which changed and followed paths that rendered them grammatical items. Literature by Lehmann, Hopper and Traugott as well as other indications in Arab linguists' and grammarians’ writings are mentioned. The theoretical review in this section clarifies that grammaticalization occurs due to social and pragmatic factors.
The second section is a practical one, where the researcher aims to discover transitional paths from lexicalization to grammaticalization of several grammatical tools.
This study provides a vision that could explain the formation of some grammatical tools in the Arabic language.

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Author :Yousef Omar
Discipline :History

The Hungarian Refugee Crisis in the Ottoman Empire (1849-1851) (in Arabic).

This study provides with a historical introduction to the Hungarian War of Independence against Austria that took place between 1848 and 1849. The revolution was led by Lajos Kossuth, but it failed due to Russia's intervention. As a result, thousands of Hungarian refugees left Hungary out of fear that Austria and Russia would retaliate against them. The Ottoman Empire allowed the refugees to cross its borders and reside there. However, not only did Russia and Austria demand the Ottoman Empire for the immediate extradition of the refugees, but they also threatened them with war if they refused to comply. The study also explores the Ottoman Empire’s proposal to the Hungarian refugees, in which they were asked to convert to Islam in order to avoid their extradition; some refugees accepted the offer while others refused. Moreover, the paper refers to Kossuth's letter to Palmerston on the 20th of September 1849, in which he mentions the details of the refugees' situation. The conditions of the Hungarian refugees, their integration into the Ottoman Empire’s society and its institutions were all examined. Furthermore, the study addresses the understanding that was finally reached between the Ottoman Empire and Austria; Kossuth and the refugees were allowed to leave the Ottoman Empire. On the 1st of September 1851 Kossuth and 51 Hungarian refugees left Ottoman land and headed first to Britain before moving to the United States, which became Kossuth’s country of residence.
The study relies on many sources and references in English and Turkish. Ottoman documents were either not available, or they were irrelevant to the subject of the research.
Keywords: Hungarian Refugees, Ottoman Empire, Austria, Russia, Kossuth.

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Author :Malika Medkour
Discipline :Philosophy

From Modal Logic to the Idea of the Possible Worlds (in Arabic).

Modal logic is part of traditional logic, yet it witnessed several transformations in terms of necessity, possibility and, contingency.
Modal logic led to the rise of new modes; the modes that transformed into Deontic Modality, Epistemic Modality, and Belief Modality paved the way for new types of modes to appear.
This transformation benefited from the development of mathematics, physics and language. Furthermore, it engaged with several problematics that shed light on what has become known as ‘possible worlds,’ one of the widely discussed subjects in the field of contemporary logic.
The idea of ‘possible worlds’ assumes that multiple worlds exist. Among them, only one is considered the real world, while the rest are possible worlds. The concept relies on modal logic that follows from this principle: the proposition is necessary if it is true in all worlds, possible if true in at least one world, impossible if it is not true in any possible worlds, and contingent if true in some but not all worlds.
The Problematic:
How does research in the field of logic reflect the idea of ‘possible worlds?’ What are the problematics concerning logic that arose?
The researcher employs an analytical historical method to examine the origins of the idea of ‘possible worlds’ and the role that mathematics and logic plays in its development and expansion.
Key words:
Modal Logic - Necessary - Possible - Impossible - Possible Worlds.

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Author :Samar al-Dayyoub
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Metanarration in the Arabian Nights: The Tale of “The Porter and the Three Ladies” as a Model (in Arabic).

Metanarration is regarded as a new term in critical studies, and this article claims that the term originated in old Arabic narrative writings. Attempting to support this view and to illustrate the shift from traditional Arabic narration to metanarration, the researcher chose to study metanarration in the traditional text, the tale of “The Porter and the Three Ladies”. To achieve this goal, this article tackles the following areas:
-Metanarration as a term and its relation to the tale.
-The components of metanarration in the tale of “The Porter and the Three Ladies”.
-The author and the narrators in the metanarrative.
-Metanarrative discourse in the tale.
-Metanarration and the visual illustrations.

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Author :Mohammad Jafar Asghari
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Romanticism in Ahmad Zaki Abou Shadi’s and Golchin Gilani's Poetry: A Comparative Thematic Study (in Arabic).

Romanticism was a reaction against the classical school and its principles. The movement also attempted to eliminate anarchy entrenched in the society.
Moreover, the rough conditions governing the Arab and Iranian societies during that period of time caused poets and literati to gravitate towards a romantic approach in hopes to steer away from the real world. Accordingly, this research aims to compare the romantic approach between Ahmad Zaki Abou Shadi from Egypt and Majd al-Din Mirfkhraei, also known as Golchin Gilani from Iran. The paper depicts the similarities and differences between their poetry. In addition, based on an analytical descriptive method and with the help of the principles of the American School of Comparative Literature, the present study aims to reveal the most important romantic features in the poetry of both poets.
The results obtained from the study can be summarized as follows: Romanticism is represented as fully as possible in their poetry; similar characteristics of Romanticism in both their poetry are as follows: calling to nature, gloom, pessimism, spatial, temporal, and social alienation, love, women, romantic despair, and acceptance of death. However, dissimilar themes between their poetry include that pessimism is observed more in Golchin Gilani’s poetry compared to in Abou Shadi’s. Also, praising women can be seen in the Egyptian’s poetry more so than in the Iranian’s poetry.  
Keywords: comparative literature, Romanticism, Ahmad Zaki Abou Shadi, Golchin Gilani.

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