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Volume : 39 Issue : 156 2021

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Author :Najah Cheriaa
Discipline :French Language and Literature

Reformulation: Négation et Réfutation Avec en Fait (in French).

Cet article aborde la problématique de la négation, sous un angle nouveau. Il l’examine dans son rapport avec la reformulation, en prenant pour modèle la locution adverbiale de reformulation non paraphrastique en fait.
La définition de la négation se fait sur la base d’un fonctionnement essentiel qu’est l’inversion de la valeur de vérité d’un jugement par le passage de la valeur "vrai"
à la valeur "faux". Du point de vue morphosyntaxique, une phrase ne peut être considérée comme négative que si elle comprend un morphème négatif.
Le but de ce travail est de poser le problème du statut syntaxique de la négation et de montrer qu’il est possible d’envisager la négation d’un point de vue sémantique. Pour ce faire, nous nous référons à Moeschler (1982) et à Anscombre et Ducrot (1983).
Dans une perspective énonciative, basée sur le travail interprétatif et l’étude des stratégies indirectes d’énonciation, un sens négatif peut apparaître non pas via des expressions négatives classiques, mais à travers l’étude des actes de langage mobilisés.
Ce travail montre que ce connecteur peut être vecteur d’une négation du contenu propositionnel de l'énoncé initiatif parce que la négation est tirée de la signification littérale des énoncés, de leur contenu propositionnel.
Mais son étude en fonction de l’opposition entre un contenu propositionnel et une autre entité non concrétisée linguistiquement révèle son rôle, non comme expression négative à l’instar des morphèmes négatifs classiques, mais en tant que marqueur de polémicité polyphonique.
Par conséquent, partant de l'idée que la fonction fondamentale de la langue est liée
à l'interaction sociale, la négation et la reformulation peuvent être considérées en fonction de ce rôle central qui combine, dans la langue, le dit et le non-dit ; ce qui donne un statut plus ferme aux éléments implicites et prouve le rôle des stratégies indirectes d>énonciation.
Mots clés: reformulation, négation, réfutation, négation polémique, implicite, polyphonie.
 

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Author :Zaidan Kafafi
Discipline :History

Archaeology, Religion, and Politics: The Southern Part of the Levant as a Case Study (in Arabic).

This paper aims at discussing the role played by the Orientalists and Archaeologists in interpreting the results of their studies to serve their political purposes and to approve the Biblical narratives. In addition, it has been discussed that culture and civilization started in the Orient very much earlier than in the Occident. Examples for this can be obtained from the third millennium literature or legends such as the Gilgamish (Mesopotamia) and Win'moun (Egypt). However, in present days Occident is more advanced in modern and computer sciences rather than the Orient, Thus, Arab should preserve and learn their inherited tradition, but at the same time, they must long live their time by studying master the modern sciences.
This paper presents a concentrated discussion on the southern part of the Levant, because this part is subjugating under study since the nineteenth century in an attempt to attribute the oriental heritage to other people rather than to the Arabs. Moreover, information concerning the history of the Jew, and the establishment of archaeological centers and schools in Europe and America is mentioned.
This paper recommends of establishing an Arab research school for protecting, studying and presenting the Arab archaeological heritage.
Key Words:  Antiquity, Religion, Politics, Bible, Orient, Occident, Holy Land, Maximalist, Minimalists.
 

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Author :Abdullah Banageeb
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Evidence-based Argumentation on Poetry-prose Differentiation: ‘The Twenty Fifth Night of Pleasure and Fun’ as a Case Study (in Arabic).

This study aims to uncover the argumentation in the ‘Twenty-fifth Night’ from the book of Imtaa and Moanasa for Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi. It is a night that was dedicated to reveal the disputable statements about the differentiation between poetry and prose. As far as the methodology is involved, the study uses the argumentation approaches common in the contemporary Western and Arab studies. Analysis takes two levels based on this approach: at the first one, the types of argumentations are studied, while the at the second, the rhetoric and styles of argumentation are examined. The study reached a number of conclusions as follows: the arguments put forth used by the three groups, whether among neutrals, prose or poetry supporters, have diversified, even if the ‘reason argumentation’ is the most popular one among them; there have been varied forms used, and the superlative form ‘Afa’al’ was the most common one. This goes in line with the nature of the disputed issue, which is mainly a differentiation issue, in which each party employs this formulae to support its position and to undervalue the position of the other. Stylistically, Al-laila (i.e. the night) text has employed a number of styles, mainly negattion and confinement that were the most used argumentative styles here. The study recommends extending the investigation of the argumentation related to the differentiation between poetry and prose in the rest of the relics of Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi, and in the Arab heritage in general.
Keywords: argumentation; poetry; prose; Abu Hayyan al-Tawhidi.
 

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Author :Latifa Alhammadi
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Divine Monologues in the Poem “Forgiveness” by Osha Al-Suwaidi (Vision and Tool) (in Arabic).

This piece of research seeks to shed light on the divine (or godly) monologue in the poem “Forgiveness” by the Emirati poet Ausha Al-Suwaidi (Known as Girl of the Arabs/1920-2018), by using the analytical descriptive methodology, in addition to the stylistic approach that contributed to identifying the features of the text that give it its idiosyncrasy and uniqueness.
This paper addresses the vision of the poet Ausha Al-Suwaidi in her poem “Forgiveness” and attempts to uncover the artistic devices she used and their role in expressing such a vision. The most important ones here include negation, repetition, dialogue, intertextuality, pronominal displacement, sound effects that all unfold the poet’s deep meanings and fathomless poeticness.
The poem (Forgiveness) constitutes a connective tissue between two complementary worlds: the earthly world and the Hereafter world, through which the poet was able to demonstrate her artistic skills in probing the sacred and transcendental meanings, which enabled her to compose a poem ‘embroidered’ with various artistic devices that reflected her inner spirituality, pure self and distinguish thought.
The study also tries to handle the poet’s ability in expressing the states of the human soul while she is praying to her Lord. Going to significations beyond the text in question can reveal the best possible ways of for spiritual invocation with God (i.e. Allah).
In the end, the study reached some conclusions, the most important of which is that firstly the art of divine monologue - in general - is full of expressive formulas and remarkable stylistic structures that qualify it to be an artistic discourse, like many other forms of literary writing. Secondly, in the divine monologue in this poem, there is a clear religious tendency derived from the Qur’an, the basis for such a poet’s vision. The poet has invested in different artistic and expressive methods and modalities that gave her text various denotations and connotations, and through which she expressed her feelings towards spiritual invocation with God, relying in this on explication rather than implication.
Among the recommendations offered in this study are the following: reviewing and/or re-visiting the divine monologue texts, as this genre is often confined to one point of view: worshipping, requesting and supplicating, without turning eyes to the literary beauty and creativity and textual and stylistic characteristics that make it a distinctive fabric.
Key words: Monologues to God, Forgiveness, Ausha Al-Suwaidi, Vision, Tool.
 

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Author :Mohammad Alkhuraisat
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

‘The Purposeful Justification Method’ in Guiding the Holy Quranic Readings (in Arabic).

The aim of this study is to offer a conception on the purposeful realization in the Arabic language through directing the Arabic language scholars towards the different readings of Qur’anic verses.
Scholars specializing in the guided reading of the Holy Quran used all the potential that can enable them to conflate the different Holy Quran readings.  Purposefulness was one of those guiding reconciliatory tools that they have adopted. This study reveals the elements and manifestations of ‘linguistic purposefulness’ which the Arabic language scholars have drawn upon in their steering efforts, especially when controversial readings occur in different places in the Holy Quran.
This study adopts the inductive approach that looks into all sorts of Qur’anic exegeses to study the directional purposeful cues and clues, which enabled offering the most important thoughts and principles of modern ‘linguistic purposefulness’.
The study has arrived at a number of conclusions such as the relationship between purposefulness and syntactic guidance stem from a general conception that the speakers' intentions govern the direction of the spoken language. Moreover, ‘the principle of purpose’, from the perspective of our ancient scholars, has to do with the communicative purpose that the speaker wants to achieve in any given discourse. Our ancient scholars were aware of the basic principles of in-use purposeful thinking and its effect on language structures. The Arabic in-use purposeful thinking consists of a group of elements: context, embeddedness, meaning, entailment, citation, specification and semantic functionality.  
The scientific legacy, which ancient Arab scholars left to us, must be reviewed in all scientific fields because a lot of modern science principles are based on it and modern studies need to be re-evaluated according.
Keywords: Purposefulness, directing, readings, context, pragmatics, functionality.
 

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Author :Noha Atef
Discipline :Mass Communication

YouTube Arab Bloggers’ Needs and their Gratifications (in Arabic).

This article tackles YouTube Arab Bloggers’ needs and their gratifications. The study aims at understanding the motivations that pushed such Arab bloggers to produce and share video content. The study applies the Uses and Gratification Theory to 15 YouTube bloggers, whose channels focuses on the themes of studying and personal care. The study attempts to answer two questions: Why Arab bloggers are creating content on YouTube? (i.e. what are their needs), and what impact does the consistent use of YouTube have on their lives? (The gratifications). The data has been collected through in-depth interviews conducted in three Arab counties, namely, Egypt, Jordan and United Arab Emirates in the period between November 2019 and March 2020. The study concludes that Arab bloggers have five needs to satisfy, when they create and post video material via the YouTube: firstly, to create content in Arabic about the underrepresented topics in the mainstream media as to maximize benefit, secondly, to promote a trademark or a commodity for the financial benefit of the blogger, thirdly,  to have  a fruitful investment of free time, fourthly, to share one’s own experiences, fifthly, to make financial profits through YouTube by producing content on this social network that attracts a large number of viewers. Having a constant use of YouTube, the fulfillment of these needs can be represented in the following things: firstly, the subjects of the study developed a sense of power and influence, whether on the Internet or in their social circles, secondly, they developed a sense of belonging to a new social circle of followers and fans, thirdly, they made financial profits and relied on blogging as a source of income, fourthly, they acquired new skills, whether technical ones related to the image industry, or personal ones such as speaking to the public, or social ones, such as dealing with critics.
Keywords: YouTube, Influencers, Uses and Gratifications, Social Media.
 

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Author :Husam Ayyoub
Discipline :Arabic Language and Literature

Numeral Phonemic Syllabification-based Detection of Prosodic Zahhafat (in Arabic).

The purpose of this study is to identify the two dimensions of Arabic prosody: the metrical-quantitative and the numeral-qualitative, through studying “Zahhafat” (i.e. changes made to the second phoneme of the morphological pattern) in Arabic poetry, as well as testing the validity of the Quantitative Theory in explaining Arabic prosody. The study also aims to critique some models that were used to explain the nature of Arabic prosody, such as depending on the number of letters in classical numeral prosody. One last objective of the study is to provide scientific justifications for accepting or rejecting some “Zahhafat", each of which needs scientific evidence to support.
A number of poetic examples on “Zahhafat" has been collected and screened out as to be restricted to those Zahhafat that are governed by the sound rules, which in turn govern the change without relying on to the linguistic quantity only in formulating such rules. Thus, a combination of ‘linguistic quantitative symmetry’ and ‘proportionality of the quality’ has resulted in through ‘parallelism and contrast’ of the poetic kernels that form the patterns on two levels: the poetic pattern and the poetic verse. This has been adopted as a criterion for accepting and liking poetry Zahhafat or rejecting and disliking them.
The paper has concluded that any given Zahhaf (sing. of Zahhafat) is restricted to three main quantitative linguistic changes, each of which consists of many Zahhafat. And each type of them is distinguished with a special numeral quantity, that is, there is no qualitative numeral change in the first type, the presence of unusual numeral change in the second type due to lack of one kernel element (i.e. Assabab Aththakeel: a two-vowel cluster) in one sound syllable, the presence of a likeable numeral change in the second type due to the transformation of Assabab Aththakeel into Assabab Al-Khafeef (i.e. a vowel-consonant cluster). It is also possible to have two types together at the same time, which can be referred to as synthetic Zahhahhaf.
The study recommends studying the situations in which the Arabic poetry appreciation draws on physical quantity in the following Zahhafs: Idmar, the A'sab,  E'llat Alqata' in Hashu Almutadarak And by studying the correlation between lexical meaning and the idiomatic meaning of Zahhafat and E'lal. Studying the unpleasant Zahhafat and synthetic ones has been will be taken in future research by the author, who calls on all Arab poets to avoid taking such disapproved Zahhafat.
Keywords: poetic meters, Khaleel bin Ahmad Al- Farahidy, prosody.
 

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Author :Sama Sulaiman
Discipline :Music

A Spotlight on Reading Musical Texts (in Arabic).

This paper deals with two main problems related to reading musical texts. The first has to do with how to draw the boundaries between what is called ‘the momentary effect’ of a musical work, and the conscious understanding of its genuine characteristics and artistic identity. As for the second problem, it relates to the  aesthetic, structural, philosophical and historical contexts that a serious critical reading should take into account by analysis and investigation.
The aim of this study is centered around activating the means by which the musical text reading should be dealt with in light of a set of considerations imposed by the musical language in terms of its specificity and ways to achieve its perception at the semantic level on one hand, and in terms of the text’s correlation to a phonic condition that can guranttee to translate its content through musical performance on the other hand. This is so as the dialogical relationship between the text and its reader appears to be  freer from the spontaneity of direct reception and more complex and demanding in a journey driven by passion to where the meaning resides.
As a research method, we have adopted a comparative approach to the literary text with the musical text  by addressing the differences relevant to the expressive tools of both texts, as to uncover the unique aspects of the musical language. To see how the methodologies of reading musical texts have evloved, we have also traced the bologging process across successive historical periods in parallel with the development of the techniques of writing and composition over the ages.
The study concludes with offering a set of priorities that can guide the process of analytical reading of the elements of musical text, based on the sum of its characteristics, and on the diversity of analytical approaches related to its nature and composition.
If this study provides some keys related to the musical text analysis, then dealing with texts of different aesthetic, intellectual and historical qualities will give the reader a great benefit in enriching his/her critical analytical experience that will be positively reflected on a more complete and convincing musical performance.
Keywords: The musical art, the musical language, musical text, musical performance, musical blogging, oral music, written music, music in ancient civilizations, priorities of reading the musical text, history of classical Western music, contemporary analytical perspective, the musical form, deciphering symbols of musical work, reflections on contemporary music.
 

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