Journal of Law


Volume : 28 Issue : 1 2021

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Author :Hesham I. Almujamed and Mishari M. Alfraih
Discipline :Accounting

Value Relevance of Accounting Measures: Do Board Gender-Diversity and Ownership Structure Matter in Kuwaiti Context?

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether the characteristics of the boards of directors of companies listed on Kuwait Boursa influenced the value relevance of accounting information.
Study design/ methodology/ approach: Family members, women members, members of the royal family, and government ownership of the boards of directors were used as proxies of effective corporate governance on the value relevance of accounting information. Value relevance was derived from regressing stock price on earnings and equity book values using Ohlson’s (1995) valuation model.
Sample and data: The dataset consisted of 121 non-financial firms listed on Kuwait Boursa in 2016.
Results: Regression analysis showed that certain board characteristics of firms listed on the Kuwait Boursa displayed greater value relevance to accounting information. After controlling for firm size and industry category, the results suggested that family ownership resulted in greater value relevance of earnings, but not book value. Kuwaiti firms with more women on boards had significantly lower value relevance for book value. The presence of royal family members on a board and government ownership were negatively correlated with market value.
Originality/ value: This paper extends the previous literature by providing empirical evidence that certain board characteristics increase the value relevance of accounting information.
Research limitations/ implications: This research provides evidence only for a limited set of characteristics; other board aspects and valuation models should be investigated. This study is useful for academics, regulators, managers and other stakeholders. The findings will benefit decision makers by highlighting the importance of female members on Kuwaiti boards in maintaining an effective governance mechanism. Family-owned businesses with family members on the board had greater value relevance for earnings.

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Author :Awad M. Al-Zufairi
Discipline :Orgnizational Behavior

Effect of Employee Gender on Ethical Standards in Kuwaiti Business Environment

Purpose: This study examines the differences between male and female Kuwaiti employees with regard to their ethical standards utilizing (Miller et al., 2002) MWEP questionnaire.
Study design/methodology/approach: SPSS was used to perform statistical analyses. Statistics include variables correlations and descriptive statistics. To calculate differences Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney Tests were used.    To investigate correlations, Pearson Correlation Coefficient was applied, and Cronbach-Alpha was employed to investigate the strength of the scales.
Sample and data: Data from (515) employees, of whom (270) were males and (245) females were selected from 4 Kuwaiti business organizations, of which 2 were governmental and 2 private sector organizations.
Results: Results indicate that: (1) Women are more ethically than men in most MWEP scales of business ethics, (2) Differences between males and females tend to become less as women progressed in their years of service, and (3) more validity and reliability for the MWEP questionnaire was established.
Originality/value: The study enriches the field of business ethics in Arabic business environment regarding differences between male and female employees with significant results employing all items of MWEP. This will serve academicians and professionals alike and contributes to international business comparative studies.
Research limitations/implications: This study utilized a cross-sectional design, and results derived from such studies may presume, but not confirm causality. Thus, further research needs to be conducted to better assume generality in other Arabic countries.

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Author :Amr A. Zidan
Discipline :Orgnizational Behavior

A Comparative Study of Work Ethics among Egyptian Managers across Generations

Purpose: This study aimed to explore significant differences of Work Ethics Dimensions among Egyptian Managers through generation X and generation Y. Gender and managerial levels were also used to differentiate among work ethics dimensions.
Study design/methodology/approach: Two hypotheses were formed. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were employed. Work Ethics Dimensions resulting from Factor Analysis were examined according to three independent variables (generations, Gender and Managerial Level) using One-way ANOVA and MANOVA.
Sample and data: A convenience sample of 685 private sector managers was selected and a questionnaire was used for data collection.
Results: The results indicate that the Work Ethics Scale in the Egyptian context consists of five dimensions: Hard Work, Leisure, Self-reliance, Work Centrality, and Waste of Time. The significance of these dimensions differs according to generations and gender. The results also showed few meaningful quantitative differences between generations.
Originality/value: The paper aimed to examine the (MWEPsf) between Generation X and Generation Y managers from a mid-eastern cultural perspective. Also, the paper examined significant differences of work ethics dimensions according to two control variables: gender and managerial level.
Research limitations/implications: The study relied only on a non-probability sample that was applied to the managers of an Egyptian private sector.


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Author :Mohammed A. Alshetwi
Discipline :Accounting

Determinants of Female Director Representation on Board of Saudi Listed Firms

Purpose: This study aims to identify the most important factors related to increasing the ratio of female board directorship in Saudi listed firms.
Study design/methodology/approach: This study uses a deductive approach. Both multiple-regression and trend analysis are used to test the hypothesis. Mann Whitney test is also used as an additional test to enhance the validity of the study.
Sample and data: The current study uses a firm-level accounting data. The sample consists of 460 observations for the period 2013- 2019.
Results: It is found that the ratio of female directors in Saudi listed firms is very low, approaching only 2 per cent. The results also show that the Saudi vision of 2030 has no direct impact on increasing the ratio of female directors in Saudi listed firms. Moreover, the ratio of female directors is affected by the factors related to individual characteristics of female directors such as competence, experience, and having multiple directorships. Finally, the results reveal that the ratio of female directors in Saudi listed firms increases in family firms, small firms, firms having independent boards, small board size, and firms with high performance.
Originality/value: The study provides evidence from Saudi corporate contexts supporting resource dependence theory to explain the importance of having competent and qualified directors on boards, irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, or other concerns.
Research limitations/implications: The first limitation is the sample size, which consists only of Saudi nonfinancial listed firms due to a lack of data from other companies. Also, this study uses only three individual characteristics of female directors: competence, experience, and having multiple directorships. Other individual characteristics such as age and nationality are not included because of absence of data on them.














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Author :Faisal A. Alshehri and Mervat M. Morsy
Discipline :Human Resources

The Mediating Role of Moral Identity in the Relationship between Leader Integrity and Ethical Decision-Making

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the direct relationship between leader integrity and ethical decision-making, and how this relationship is mediated by moral identity.
Study design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire including a set of statements was used to measure the study variables.
Sample and data: This study was conducted on a stratified random sample of (197 physicians) working in a Saudi hospital.
Results: The results indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between leader integrity and ethical decision-making. They also show that moral identity fully mediates the relationship between leader integrity and ethical decision-making.
Originality/value: This is one of the first studies examining the mediating role of moral identity in the relationship between leader integrity and ethical decision-making.
Research limitations/implications: The current study is limited to physicians working in a Saudi hospital.

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