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Volume : 28 Issue : 1 2021

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Author :Mervat M. Elsaid
Discipline :Human Resources

The Mediating Role of Job Crafting in the Relationships Among Job Autonomy and Both of Service Innovative Behavior and Service - Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Purpose: This study aimed to examine if job crafting intervention mediates the relationships among job autonomy and both service innovative behavior and service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior.
Study design/methodology/approach: By utilizing a questionnaire, which including items to measures the research constructs.
Sample and data: This study was conducted on a convenience sample of (398) first-line employees working in five Egyptian banks.
Results: This study concluded that job crafting intervention mediates the relationships among job autonomy and both service innovative behavior and service-oriented organizational citizenship behavior.
Originality/value: This is one of the first Arabic and English studies addressing four variables together.
Research limitations/implications: This study is only limited to five Egyptian banks and first-line employees working in them.
 
 

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Author :Hesham I. Almujamed and Mishari M. Alfraih
Discipline :Accounting

Value Relevance of Accounting Measures: Do Board Gender-Diversity and Ownership Structure Matter in Kuwaiti Context?

 

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether the characteristics of the boards of directors of companies listed on Kuwait Boursa influenced the value relevance of accounting information.
Study design/ methodology/ approach: Family members, women members, members of the royal family, and government ownership of the boards of directors were used as proxies of effective corporate governance on the value relevance of accounting information. Value relevance was derived from regressing stock price on earnings and equity book values using Ohlson’s (1995) valuation model.
Sample and data: The dataset consisted of 121 non-financial firms listed on Kuwait Boursa in 2016.
Results: Regression analysis showed that certain board characteristics of firms listed on the Kuwait Boursa displayed greater value relevance to accounting information. After controlling for firm size and industry category, the results suggested that family ownership resulted in greater value relevance of earnings, but not book value. Kuwaiti firms with more women on boards had significantly lower value relevance for book value. The presence of royal family members on a board and government ownership were negatively correlated with market value.
Originality/ value: This paper extends the previous literature by providing empirical evidence that certain board characteristics increase the value relevance of accounting information.
Research limitations/ implications: This research provides evidence only for a limited set of characteristics; other board aspects and valuation models should be investigated. This study is useful for academics, regulators, managers and other stakeholders. The findings will benefit decision makers by highlighting the importance of female members on Kuwaiti boards in maintaining an effective governance mechanism. Family-owned businesses with family members on the board had greater value relevance for earnings.
 

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Author :Awad M. Al-Zufairi
Discipline :Orgnizational Behavior

Effect of Employee Gender on Ethical Standards in Kuwaiti Business Environment

Purpose: This study examines the differences between male and female Kuwaiti employees with regard to their ethical standards utilizing (Miller et al., 2002) MWEP questionnaire.
Study design/methodology/approach: SPSS was used to perform statistical analyses. Statistics include variables correlations and descriptive statistics. To calculate differences Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney Tests were used.    To investigate correlations, Pearson Correlation Coefficient was applied, and Cronbach-Alpha was employed to investigate the strength of the scales.
Sample and data: Data from (515) employees, of whom (270) were males and (245) females were selected from 4 Kuwaiti business organizations, of which 2 were governmental and 2 private sector organizations.
Results: Results indicate that: (1) Women are more ethically than men in most MWEP scales of business ethics, (2) Differences between males and females tend to become less as women progressed in their years of service, and (3) more validity and reliability for the MWEP questionnaire was established.
Originality/value: The study enriches the field of business ethics in Arabic business environment regarding differences between male and female employees with significant results employing all items of MWEP. This will serve academicians and professionals alike and contributes to international business comparative studies.
Research limitations/implications: This study utilized a cross-sectional design, and results derived from such studies may presume, but not confirm causality. Thus, further research needs to be conducted to better assume generality in other Arabic countries.
 

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Author :Amr A. Zidan
Discipline :Orgnizational Behavior

A Comparative Study of Work Ethics among Egyptian Managers across Generations

Purpose: This study aimed to explore significant differences of Work Ethics Dimensions among Egyptian Managers through generation X and generation Y. Gender and managerial levels were also used to differentiate among work ethics dimensions.
Study design/methodology/approach: Two hypotheses were formed. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were employed. Work Ethics Dimensions resulting from Factor Analysis were examined according to three independent variables (generations, Gender and Managerial Level) using One-way ANOVA and MANOVA.
Sample and data: A convenience sample of 685 private sector managers was selected and a questionnaire was used for data collection.
Originality/value: The paper aimed to examine the (MWEPsf) between Generation X and Generation Y managers from a mid-eastern cultural perspective. Also, the paper examined significant differences of work ethics dimensions according to two control variables: gender and managerial level.
Results: The results indicate that the Work Ethics Scale in the Egyptian context consists of five dimensions: Hard Work, Leisure, Self-reliance, Work Centrality, and Waste of Time. The significance of these dimensions differs according to generations and gender. The results also showed few meaningful quantitative differences between generations.
Research limitations/implications: The study relied only on a non-probability sample that was applied to the managers of an Egyptian private sector.


 

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Author :Omar M. Khalil, Laila Marouf and Nadia O. Khalil
Discipline :Orgnizational Behavior

Academics’ Knowledge Sharing Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors: The Influence of Individual Characteristics

Purpose: In a higher education institute (HEI), knowledge sharing (KS) practices and the factors that could influence them are imperative to KS enhancement efforts. This study aimed to answer two main questions: (1) To what extent do academics at a major Middle Eastern HEI hold favorable KS attitudes, practice KS, and intend to continue sharing knowledge in the future? (2) What influence do the individual characteristics of gender, age, academic field, academic rank, experience in the HEI, and education level have on academics' KS attitudes, intentions, and behaviors?
Study design/methodology/approach: The present study is a single case study where Kuwait University (KU), a comprehensive public Middle Eastern university, is the research setting. A single item (question) was used to measure each of the individual characteristics, and multi-item measures were used to measure KS attitude, intention, and behavior. An English-Arabic data collection survey was developed for data collection from full-time academics at KU.
Sample and data: A convenience sample, including 207 complete responses (14.5% of the total population of academics), was collected. The data set was then analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) procedures to answer the two research questions.
Results: Academics in the sample were found to hold favorable KS attitudes, intend to share knowledge in the future, and practice significant KS via organizational and personal channels. Furthermore, gender, age, academic field, academic rank, experience, and education level were found to have varying main and interaction effects on KS attitudes, intentions, and behaviors.
Originality/value: This study provides novel evidence on academics’ KS attitudes, intentions, and behaviors along with the effect of individual characteristics on these KS-related factors in a HEI operating in the Middle East. It also reveals that the influence of an individual characteristic is often contingent on its interactions with the other characteristics, and therefore, the main effect of that characteristic should be carefully interpreted.
Research limitations/implications: The results of this study must be carefully construed since they are based on a single case study and were derived from a one-time, cross-sectional data set. Yet, these results add to the developing body of knowledge on global KS practices and the effect of individual characteristics on KS attitude, intention, and behavior. They also provide a proper foundation for policy formulation aiming at fostering KS effectiveness in the investigated HEI and similar HEIs.
 

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Author :Sanaa M. Abo Lifa
Discipline :Human Resources

The Relationship between the Dimensions of Soft Leadership and the Behavioral Integrity in the Working Environment in Employees at Al-Jouf University

Purpose: The study aimed to study the relationship between the dimensions of soft leadership and the behavioral integrity of employees in the working environment of workers at Al-Jouf University. As well as revealing the significant differences in the direction of workers for the dimensions of soft leadership (vision, communication, emotional intelligence) and the behavioral integrity of workers in the work environment according to demographic variables (gender, nature of employment, age, duration of work at university).
Study design/methodology/approach: The study adopted the descriptive analytical method as a method of study in addition to the survey, in order to describe the characteristics and variables related to the problem of study and test the study assignments.
Sample and data: Applied to a sample of (337) individual staff at Al-Jouf University. Questionnaire used to collect the required data, questionnaire list was distributed to all the vocabulary of the study sample, and (251) lists were recovered by (74.48%).
Results: The study revealed a moderate degree of awareness of the dimensions of soft leadership and behavioral integrity of employees in the work environment, the existence of a positive significant relationship between the dimensions of soft leadership and the behavioral integrity of employees in the work environment, and the existence of significant differences in the perception of employees the dimensions of soft leadership and behavioral integrity of employees in the work environment according to (the nature of the job, the duration of work at the university).
Originality/value: The current study provides knowledge about soft leadership and behavioral integrity to employees in the work environment, collecting data from a sample of Arab participants provides meaningful evidence of the external honesty of soft leadership as a predictor of the behavioral integrity of employees in the work environment. Soft leadership at the university can be seen as a valuable resource for their employees to enhance behavioral integrity in the work environment and improve their safe connection to the workplace. In other words, soft leadership serves as an important tool in promoting the behavioral integrity of employees in the work environment. The findings revealed in the current study added to the growing content of scientific work on the impact of soft driving on subordinates, and contributed to further study on the sincerity of soft driving theory.
Research limitations/implications: The academic limits of the study were the study of the variable dimensions of soft driving dimensions, the behavioral integrity of workers in the working environment, and the human limits were represented by a simple random sample of workers at al-Jouf University. In the current study, data collected over a short period of time were based on cross sectional and could not be relied on long-term longitudinal data due to time, effort and cost.
 

 

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Author :Khaled H. Zebdeh
Discipline :Finance

The Impact of Financial Performance on Corporate Social Responsibility. An Empirical Study on Listed Palestinian Banks

Purpose: The study aims to empirically investigate the impact of financial performance by using return on assets, equity, earning per share, and net profit (ROA, ROE, EPS, NP). In addition, the study also investigates the bank size and the paid-up capital as control variables on the banks' social responsibility (CSR) of the listed banks in the Palestinian stock exchange.
Study design/methodology/approach: The study relied on the descriptive and analytical approach in studying social responsibility aspects and analyzing annual data related to the study problem. The researcher employed a panel data regression model with fixed effects (GMM) methods using the Eviews program.
Sample and data: The study was applied to seven listed banks during the period 2010-2019. The collected data was converted to quarterly data to increase the number of observations, facilitate statistical analysis, and overcome the problem of discrepancy and outliers of the huge data used and converted to the algorithmic formula, such as net profits and net revenues.
Results: A negative relationship between CSR and ROA, EPS, and ROEwas found. On the other hand, a positive association between CSR and NP, PCT, and SIZE was induced. The study found that when the contribution of expenditures on social responsibility by listed Palestinian banks increases, it will positively impact its net profit and a negative one on returns distributed to the owners and investors.
Originality/value: The majority of scholarly studies have focused on the subject of social responsibility by examining the impact of social responsibility on the financial performance of companies. This study investigated the subject in a reverse way by studying the effect of financial performance indicators on the degree of participation of Palestinian banks included in social responsibility to benefit from its results in promoting the concept of corporate social responsibility.
Research limitations/ implications: This study is limited to the Palestinian banks, specifically the seven listed banks on the Palestine Stock Exchange, given that these banks direct their activities towards social responsibility in the Palestinian territories, unlike the foreign banks.
 

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Author :Mohamed E. Mousa /Mahmoud A. Kamel
Discipline :Information Systems

Analysis of Some Potential Barriers to Digital Transformation in Egyptian Public Universities from the Viewpoint of IT Experts

Purpose: This paper aimed to identify the potential Barriers to Digital Transformation (DT) based on literature review, and to analyze the interactive relationships between these barriers and arrange them in terms of their mutual impact and their direct and indirect relationships considering IT experts' opinions in Egyptian public universities.
Study design/methodology/approach: The Qualitative Research methodology was adopted to identify potential barriers to DT, as well as their mutual relationships, and to arrange them according to their impact on the DT process, from the viewpoint of IT experts in the Egyptian public universities. Based on Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis using R v.4.0.2 software.
Sample and data: To model the relationship between barriers, Data were collected from 60 IT specialists in some Egyptian public universities, through a questionnaire to identify interrelationships between barriers of DT.
Results: The results indicated that all eleven potential barriers could impede -with different degrees- the DT process in the Egyptian public universities. The barriers were ranked considering their mutual influence relationships. So ``employees' fear of losing a job (B6), resistance to change (B5) '' was the most influential barriers, while`` the difficulty of convincing stakeholders of the benefits of digital transformation (B2), a lack of standards and reference frameworks that regulate digital transactions (B3)''. `were the least influential.
Originality/value: This research used ISM and MICMAC analysis, and this is among the first attempts to explore the Interrelationships between barriers of DT in the universities in Egypt and Arabian countries. Moreover, this research is also useful for academics and practitioners to better understand the phenomenon of DT, and that the solutions must be integrated, to reflect the mutual influence between Barriers and the priorities for facing them.
Research limitations/implications: This study was conducted under some limitations, that primary data used in measuring direct and indirect relationships between barriers were collected according to the Qualitative Research methodology (experts opinion) using OR techniques (e.g. ISM, MICMAC analysis), as well as the need for empirical studies to verify the validity of the study results.
 

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Author :Mohammed A. Alshetwi
Discipline :Accounting

Determinants of Female Director Representation on Board of Saudi Listed Firms

Purpose: This study aims to identify the most important factors related to increasing the ratio of female board directorship in Saudi listed firms.
Study design/methodology/approach: This study uses a deductive approach. Both multiple-regression and trend analysis are used to test the hypothesis. Mann Whitney test is also used as an additional test to enhance the validity of the study.
Sample and data: The current study uses a firm-level accounting data. The sample consists of 460 observations for the period 2013- 2019.
Results: It is found that the ratio of female directors in Saudi listed firms is very low, approaching only 2 per cent. The results also show that the Saudi vision of 2030 has no direct impact on increasing the ratio of female directors in Saudi listed firms. Moreover, the ratio of female directors is affected by the factors related to individual characteristics of female directors such as competence, experience, and having multiple directorships. Finally, the results reveal that the ratio of female directors in Saudi listed firms increases in family firms, small firms, firms having independent boards, small board size, and firms with high performance.
Originality/value: The study provides evidence from Saudi corporate contexts supporting resource dependence theory to explain the importance of having competent and qualified directors on boards, irrespective of their gender, ethnicity, or other concerns.
Research limitations/implications: The first limitation is the sample size, which consists only of Saudi nonfinancial listed firms due to a lack of data from other companies. Also, this study uses only three individual characteristics of female directors: competence, experience, and having multiple directorships. Other individual characteristics such as age and nationality are not included because of absence of data on them.

 

 


 

 
 

 


 

 
 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

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Author :Faisal A. Alshehri and Mervat M. Morsy
Discipline :Human Resources

The Mediating Role of Moral Identity in the Relationship between Leader Integrity and Ethical Decision-Making

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the direct relationship between leader integrity and ethical decision-making, and how this relationship is mediated by moral identity.
Study design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire including a set of statements was used to measure the study variables.
Sample and data: This study was conducted on a stratified random sample of (197 physicians) working in a Saudi hospital.
Results: The results indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between leader integrity and ethical decision-making. They also show that moral identity fully mediates the relationship between leader integrity and ethical decision-making.
Originality/value: This is one of the first studies examining the mediating role of moral identity in the relationship between leader integrity and ethical decision-making.
Research limitations/implications: The current study is limited to physicians working in a Saudi hospital
 

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