Journal of Law


Volume : 27 Issue : 3 2020

Download Add to cart

Author :Ayed Sh. Alaklabi
Discipline : Public Administration

Perceived Organizational Justice as a Mediator Variable in the Relationship between Big-Five Factor Personality and Creative Work Involvement at Shaqra University(in Arabic)

Purpose: This study aims to determine the impact of the Big Five Personality Factors (BFPF) on perceived organizational justice and on creative work involvement among Shaqra University employees.
Study design/methodology/approach: A descriptive analytical method was used to analyze the dimensions and components of the Big Five Personality Factors (BFPF), as well as to measure their effect on organizational justice as an intermediate variable and creative work engagement as dependent variable. A desktop method was used to collect secondary data related to the three variables, and a survey list prepared for this purpose was used to obtain primary data.
Sample and data: The data were collected from a sample of (267) faculty members and employees working at Shaqra University, whose total number is (3180).
Results: It is concluded that there is a direct impact of BFPF on creative work engagement (at a rate of 36%), and that this percentage increases up to 68.8% when organizational justice mediates in this relationship.
Originality/ value: This study differs from all previous work that deals with the relationship between the Big Five Personality Factors (BFPF) and creative immersion as mediating a variable while perceiving organizational justice as an intermediate variable in this relationship.
Research limitations/ implications: The findings of this study are limited to employees working at Shaqra University in Saudi Arabia, and may be generalized by testing them at other universities and sectors.

Download Add to cart

Author :Amr A. Zidan
Discipline :Organizational Behavior

Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Entrepreneurial Motivations and Intentions of the Students of Egyptian Governmental Universities(in Arabic)

Purpose: This study aims to explore the impact of entrepreneurship education programs on motivational factors of TPB (attitudes towards entrepreneurship, subjective norms, perceived behavior control) and entrepreneurial intentions of the students of Egyptian governmental universities. University environment is also examined.
Study design/ methodology/ approach: Seven hypotheses have been formed to analyze data and test hypotheses. An exploratory approach, a confirmatory factor analysis, a paired samples t-Test, an independent t-Test, and a structural equation model (SEM) are employed.
Sample and data: A paired sample of 175 Egyptian students is selected from 3 Egyptian governmental universities, and a questionnaire is used for data collection.
Results: For entrepreneurial intentions, the model explains 37% and 53% of the variance, respectively. The attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavior control prove to be good predictors for the entrepreneurial intentions of the participants, but subjective norms, entrepreneurship programs, and university environment are found to be weak predictors.
Originality/ value: This is one of the first studies to apply Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in an Egyptian environment. To date, studies of entrepreneurial personality have been practice–driven rather than theory- driven. It is also one of the few studies that measure entrepreneurial motivations and intentions in a university environment.
Research limitations/ implications: This research is only limited to Egyptian governmental universities, and it only uses a nonprobability sample. The results raise interesting and controversial questions about entrepreneurship educators as to whether it should aim at changing the intentions of university students and whether university environment is suitable to direct the students towards entrepreneurial behaviors.


Download Add to cart

Author :Abdullah J. Sultan
Discipline :Marketing

Employees’ Service Responsiveness and Customer Trust as Determinants of Relational Switching Costs for Retail Bank Customers in Kuwait

Purpose: A research framework for the effect of employees’ service responsiveness on relational switching costs for retail bank customers in Kuwait is developed and investigated considering different moderating variables (cherry-picking, customer lifetime, and household income) and customer trust as a mediator.
Study design/methodology/ approach: Data from a self-administered online survey were collected to conduct the research analyses. The proposed research model was validated via two-stage structural equation modeling in AMOS statistical software. Path analysis was performed to test the mediating effect of customer trust, and invariance tests were used to compare the proposed paths across different levels of moderating variables.
Sample and data: Using a snowball sampling procedure, a convenience sample of 986 retail bank customers in Kuwait was used to test the research hypotheses.
Results: Path analysis confirmed a non-significant direct effect of employees’ service responsiveness on relational switching costs but a significant indirect effect through customer trust as a mediator. Most interestingly, the direct effect was significant only for customers who were cherry-pickers and had long customer lifetimes. Furthermore, the indirect effect was statistically significant across levels of customer lifetime only, suggesting a moderated mediation relationship.
Originality/ value: Research exploring the effect of employees’ service responsiveness on relational factors such as trust and switching costs in retail banking is scarce, especially in collectivist cultures like that of Kuwait. The results confirm that employees’ service responsiveness is a critical aspect of the Kuwaiti bank experience because of its relational influence on the customer-bank relationship.
Research limitations/implications: In addition to the importance of the service experience for Kuwaiti banks’ survival and success, employees’ service responsiveness emerges as an intriguing factor influencing relational switching costs for retail bank customers based on their cherry-picking and customer lifetime levels. To retain customers, bank strategists should pursue strategies that create relational burdens for different customer segments according to their expectations.

Download Add to cart

Author :Mohamed F. Elbardan and Tharwat S. Abd Elgawad
Discipline :Human Resource

The Role of Empowering Leadership in Reducing Counterproductive Work Behaviors, The Mediating Role of Organizational Cynicism: An Empirical Study(in Arabic)

Purpose: This study aimed to address the mediating role of organizational cynicism in the relationship between empowering leadership and counterproductive work behaviors.
Study design/ methodology/ approach: The study relied on a quantitative approach, in addition to a survey as a study tool. Several statistical analysis techniques, such as structural equation modeling (SEM), were used to test study hypotheses.
Sample and data: Primary data were collected from a sample of (301) employees in a drinking water and sanitation company in Menoufia Governorate, with a response rate of (83.4%).
Results: There are several results. Firstly, a direct negative significant impact of empowering leadership is found on organizational cynicism. Secondly, there is a direct negative significant effect of empowering leadership and all on counterproductive work behaviors. Thirdly, a direct positive significant effect of organizational cynicism among workers is found on the level of their practice of counterproductive work behaviors. Finally, there is an indirect negative significant impact of empowering leadership and its aftermath (supporting opportunistic thinking and promoting cooperative actions) only at the level of workers practicing counterproductive work behaviors through organizational cynicism as a mediating variable.
Originality/value: This study is among a few applied studies that combine the three variables under study, in addition to being the first study investigating and reporting on the role of organizational cynicism as a mediating variable in the relationship between empowering leadership and counterproductive work behaviors.
Research limitations/ implications: This study was limited to dealing with both organizational cynicism, counterproductive work behaviors general, and empowering leadership in its three dimensions, by applying to the employees of the drinking water and waste water company in Menoufia Governorate in Egypt.


Download Add to cart

Author :Mishari A. Alnahedh and Larry P. Pleshko
Discipline :Strategic Management

Disentangling the Effect of Switching Costs on the Presence of First-Mover Advantage: Evidence from Kuwait

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to disentangle the effect of switching costs as an isolating mechanism on the presence of first-mover advantage in the service industries.
Study design/ methodology/ approach: This study employs confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling, performing mediation analysis to answer the research question.
Sample and data: A sample of 106 firms in four services industries and 968 responses from current customers in Kuwait were used in the study.
Results: The results show that switching costs operate as a mediating mechanism that helps explain the presence of first-mover advantage. They show that six dimensions (pre-switching search and evaluation costs, costs of lost performance, uncertainty costs, post-switching behavioral and cognitive costs, sunk costs, and setup costs) of switching costs lock-in customers for early entrants.
Originality/ value: This study provides empirical evidence that a direct first-mover effect is evident in service industries in Kuwait. It also disentangles the role of switching cost as a mediator and uncovers the dimensions of switching costs that explains how entry timing may generate a competitive advantage.
Research limitations/implications: Entrepreneurs and potential market entrants should not only consider the overall role of switching costs of the best time to enter the market, but also the differential effects each dimension of switching costs has on protecting the first-mover advantage. The empirical investigation of the multifaceted role of switching costs on first-mover advantage in the Arab region supports public policymaking to develop a local entrepreneurial ecosystem and anti-trust policies that allow for new venture entries and survival in markets dominated by incumbents.


Download Add to cart

Author :Omar M. Khalil, Laila Marouf and Nadia O. Khalil
Discipline :

Academics’ Knowledge Sharing Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors: The Influence of Individual Characteristics

Purpose: In a higher education institute (HEI), knowledge sharing (KS) practices and the factors that could influence them are imperative to KS enhancement efforts. This study aimed to answer two main questions: (1) To what extent do academics at a major Middle Eastern HEI hold favorable KS attitudes, practice KS, and intend to continue sharing knowledge in the future? (2) What influence do the individual characteristics of gender, age, academic field, academic rank, experience in the HEI, and education level have on academics' KS attitudes, intentions, and behaviors?
Study design/methodology/approach: The present study is a single case study where Kuwait University (KU), a comprehensive public Middle Eastern university, is the research setting. A single item (question) was used to measure each of the individual characteristics, and multi-item measures were used to measure KS attitude, intention, and behavior. An English-Arabic data collection survey was developed for data collection from full-time academics at KU.
Sample and data: A convenience sample, including 207 complete responses (14.5% of the total population of academics), was collected. The data set was then analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) procedures to answer the two research questions.
Results: Academics in the sample were found to hold favorable KS attitudes, intend to share knowledge in the future, and practice significant KS via organizational and personal channels. Furthermore, gender, age, academic field, academic rank, experience, and education level were found to have varying main and interaction effects on KS attitudes, intentions, and behaviors.
Originality/value: This study provides novel evidence on academics’ KS attitudes, intentions, and behaviors along with the effect of individual characteristics on these KS-related factors in a HEI operating in the Middle East. It also reveals that the influence of an individual characteristic is often contingent on its interactions with the other characteristics, and therefore, the main effect of that characteristic should be carefully interpreted.
Research limitations/implications: The results of this study must be carefully construed since they are based on a single case study and were derived from a one-time, cross-sectional data set. Yet, these results add to the developing body of knowledge on global KS practices and the effect of individual characteristics on KS attitude, intention, and behavior. They also provide a proper foundation for policy formulation aiming at fostering KS effectiveness in the investigated HEI and similar HEIs.

Journal of Law
Journal of Law

You are Visitor No.


Journal of Law
Tell your friendsJournal of Law
Journal of Law
Journal of Law

Last Updated

Nov 19, 2019

Journal of Law
Journal of Law
Journal of Law

Please enter your email Here to receive our news

Journal of Law