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Journal of Law

     

Volume : 28 Issue : 2 2021

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Author :Alaedin K. Alsayed and Somaia M. Basoos
Discipline :Public Administration

Mediating Role of Strategic Orientation in Relationship between Knowledge Management Operations and Organizational Ambidexterity: An Applied Study on Palestinian National Organizations (PNO)– Health Sector The study aims to analyze the direct impact of knowledge management operations on organizational ambidexterity, and the indirect effect of having strategic orientation as a mediating variable. The study followed the descriptive-analytical approach. As being the most appropriate for describing and analyzing the study variables, the linear regression coefficient was used to test the direct effect of knowledge management operations on organizational ambidexterity, and the indirect effect of having strategic orientation as a mediating variable. The study conducted a comprehensive survey of all workers in supervisory and specialized jobs: (246) employees working in the PNO-Health Sector, (224) questionnaires were retrieved, (210) questionnaires were analyzed at a rate of (85.4%) and four main hypotheses were tested. The study found a direct and statistically significant impact of knowledge management operations on organizational ambidexterity (55.6 percent change) and strategic orientation (62.6 percent change). Strategic orientation showed that there was a 60.2 percent change in organizational ambidexterity. It was also shown that strategic orientation partially mediated the relationship between knowledge management operations and organizational ambidexterity. The study was unique in testing the mediating role of strategic orientation between knowledge management operations and organizational ambidexterity, as none of the previous studies had tackled this role before. The study also reinforced the relationship between strategic orientation as a mediating variable and organizational ambidexterity as a dependent variable. Those studies that tackled the two of them together were scarce. The study, using the comprehensive survey method, was limited to employees holding supervisory positions in the PNO-Health Sector. The current study, along with the previous studies, showed the strength and direction of the relationship between knowledge management operations and both strategic orientation and organizational ambidexterity, and between strategic orientation and organizational ambidexterity. The study focused on the Palestinian environment with its unique characteristics from other more stable societies.

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Author :Mohamed B. El Sadek
Discipline :Management

Proposal Study for the Determinants of Sensing the Organizational IdentityThe study aimed to combine both self-identity and social identity theories in order to deduce the determinants of sensing the organizational identity. The study came up with four main determinants, i.e. the individual's position in the organization, the status of the social organization, the conformity between the individual’s values and the values of the organization, and the individual's need for a sense of identity. It also measured the impact of these four determinants on the variable of sensing the organizational identity by measuring it through the following three dimensions: a sense of self-esteem, sense of excellence, and sense of belonging. The study depended on the deductive method by analyzing both self-identity and social identity theories in order to deduce the basic determinants for the variable of sensing the organizational identity. The study also depended on the method of gradual regression analysis for identifying the impact of these determinants on the degree of sensing the organizational identity. The study society was represented by the employees working at the Holding Egyptian Company for Airports and Air Navigation. It depended on a sample of 386 subjects proportionally divided according to the number of employees in the companies to which the study was applied. The results showed the increase of the impact of the four determinants collectively on the degree of sensing the organizational identity being more than that of the impact of each determinant separately. This matter indicated that the combination of self-identity and social identity theories was far appropriate to deduce the determinants of sensing the organizational identity. This is one of the first studies combining social identity theory and self-identity theory from which the determinants of sensing the organizational identity were derived. This study delivered a set of recommendations related to how to increase the rate of an employee’s sensing the organizational identities like preparing for an electronic donation, contributing to respond to what was published about the organization, whether in mass media or social networking sites, and caring for the organizational symbols, such as decorations and organizational logos. This study was applied to the employees working at the Holding Egyptian Company for Airports and Air Navigation. The major limitations of this study dealt with the organizational identity variable from the perspective of relative stability, not from the dynamic perspective. It also dealt with the determinants of organizational identity variable regardless of its dimensions and its positive or negative effects on many other organizational variables.

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Author : Amr A. Zidan
Discipline :Management

The Impact of Board of Directors’ Characteristics on Organizational Performance in Egyptian BanksThe aim of this study is to test the impact of BOD characteristics on the performance of Egypt’s banks. Five boards of directors’ characteristics were studied, including board size, board independence, CEO duality, gender diversity, and board committees. Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) were used as measurements for measuring bank financial performance. Five hypotheses were formed. Multicollinearity Tests, Correlation Analysis, and Regression analysis were applied. A population of (31) Egyptian banks were studied. The census procedure was applied. The secondary data of the Egyptian banks were used. The data were obtained from the websites of the Egyptian banks. The results show that board size, CEO duality, and gender diversity have a positive relationship with (ROA) and (ROE). However, the impact of independent members and board committees on performance is not supported. The study also finds that bank age and ownership do not affect the relationship between board characteristics and the financial performance of Egypt’s banks. These results support previous literature and show consistency with the agency theory. This study contributes to the existing literature on corporate governance as it is one of the few Egyptian studies which have examined the effect of governance mechanisms on bank performance in Egypt. This study offers insights to regulators, investors, and bank board members in Egypt and other emerging countries concerning board characteristics and their impact on corporate governance performance. These findings can potentially help banks improve performance by considering the significant features of this study. The author is only taking some board attributes, but the concept of board characteristics is broadly wide. The research only relies on the secondary data available on the websites of Egypt’s banks.

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Author : Mohamed A. Almahi and Abdulaziz A. Aldabyah
Discipline :Accounting

The Impact of Job Enrichment on Organizational Effectiveness: Survey into Electricity Distribution Sector in Sudan and the Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaThe study dealt with the impact of job enrichment on original effectiveness and aimed to find out whether there was an impact of job enrichment on organizational effectualness. The study was conducted on the electricity distribution sector in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. The data were analyzed using the descriptive-analytical method. The study sample was chosen according to the sample size equation. The sample size was(261) individuals representing the two sectors of the Electricity Distribution Company in Khartoum and the Electricity Distribution Company of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the southern region. The study came up with multiple results, the most important of which are: job enrichment has an impact on organizational effectiveness, and that all dimensions of job enrichment affect organizational effectiveness except for the dimension of the task. In addition, 70% of the changes in the level of organizational effectiveness could be attributed to the change in the level of job enrichment. The dimensions of work assignment and work independence are considered the most influential in organizational effectiveness in both countries. The results showed that 73% of the changes in organizational effectiveness in the electricity sector in Sudan could be attributed to a change in the level of job enrichment. In comparison, 77% of the changes in organizational effectiveness in Saudi Arabia's Electricity sector could be traced back to the changes in the level of job enrichment. The study also showed that there was a difference in the level of organizational effectiveness in both electricity distribution sectors in favor of the electricity sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the light of the results, the study recommended that there be a need to pay attention to job enrichment as an entry point for enhancing organizational effectiveness, along with enhancing feedback for workers and giving them more independence in completing job tasks with clear identification of work and diversification of their skills. Furthermore, they need to select appropriate and distinguished training for job planners and workers in a way that supports their skills and capabilities and enables them to meet the philosophical requirements, that reflects positively on employees and enhances the effectiveness of institutions. This study was determined to be one of the few applicable studies which combined the two changes of job enrichment and organizational effectiveness in two different environments, hence the first study of its kind in the Arab world. The study examined the topic of job enrichment with dimensions (identification of the mission, importance of the work, diversity of the skills, and feedback) connected with the concepts of organizational effectiveness and measurement of their entries. The study was limited to the employees who are directly involved in work, not those of assistance staff or contractors in the electricity distribution sector in Sudan and Saudi Arabia according to the questionnaire which was distributed in January 2021.

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Author :Faisal A. Alshehri
Discipline :Management

Effect of Workers' Perception of Organizational Politics, as Mediating Variable, in Relationship between Ethical Training and Internal WhistleblowingThe purpose of this study is to examine the direct relationship between Ethical Training (ET) and Internal Whistleblowing (IW), and how this relationship is mediated by the Perception of Organizational Politics (POP). A questionnaire that included statements was used to measure the study variables. This study was conducted on a sample of (267 employees) working at a Saudi energy company. This study indicated a significant positive relationship between Ethical Training and Internal Whistleblowing. Furthermore, it showed that Perception of Organizational Politics fully mediated the relationship between Ethical Training and Internal Whistleblowing. This study is one of the first studies that examined the mediating role of Perception of Organizational Politics in the relationship between Ethical Training and Internal Whistleblowing. The current study was limited to employees of a Saudi energy company.

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