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Volume : 40 Issue : 543 2020

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Author :Walid Akef. PhD
Discipline :HISTORY

The Andalusi Qubba Types, Origins and Characteristics 897-92 H./ 1492-711 C.E.

The study treats the Andalusian domes in a time-period extending from 92 H./711A.D, the date of the Arab conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, until 897 H. /1492 A.D, which marks the fall of the last Muslim stronghold in Granada. The study focuses mainly on conducting a precise taxonomy to the Andalusian domes, searching for the sources and the precedents of each and every type. Moreover, it emphasizes on the most particular characteristics in the structural behavior and constructive aspects of each type. Most importantly, the study aims to unify the Arabic terms given to the Andalusian domes, because certain types of domes have lately received different denominations when some Spanish works were translated into Arabic language, which would lead to further confusion in the Arabic scholarship. Christian and Mudéjar examples are out of the scope of the study, as the latter aims to be a mere starting point for further research.
Keywords: Domes, vaults, qubba, al-Andalus, Islamic architecture
 

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Author :Dr. Saber Hasan Tor
Discipline :Mass Communication

News Coverage In Yemeni Satellite Television News Programs A Comparative Survey Study of News Programs Content

The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of news coverage in the Yemeni satellite television channels with regards to the type of issues, formats, sources, and news values shown on these television channels. The study includes seven Yemeni satellite television channels which are known for their support of the legitimate government of Yemen, but have different political leanings, and differences among them.
The researcher gathered 836 news items representing all the news channels chosen for this study.  Among the results of, it was found that the most frequent issues addressed by the channels include military and national security issues, political and governmental affairs, followed by human rights issues, and crime and justice affairs. All of these items comprised 76.5% of the total topics examined in the study. The news coverage in all channels did not include any major personalities.
In addition, the majority of the news coverage was related to the local geographical area comprising 90% of the total.  There was a lack of diversity in the sources of news, half (50%) of which were statements by government officials. In terms of the format of the news converge, 80% of  the news items were delivered in the form of regular style.
As for news values which were contained in the news programs, it was found that 74.3% of the news items contained at least on news value, while 25.7% did not contain any one of the established news value.  One channel, Belqis television, contained the most news values with 91% of its news items carried at least on news value. Another channel, the Shariyah television, was the least channel to carry news values, with only 42.1% of its news item containing at least one news value.
This study also found differences in news values as they appear in the Yemeni news channels compared to the news values found in the academic literature and Western media. The most important of these are the "follow", "good news",  "relevance", and "bad news" values, which are among ten news values investigated in this study.
Finally, the study found statistically significant differences among all the Yemeni satellite channels regarding all the variables of news converge.
Key words: News converge, Satellite television, Yemeni satellite channels, News programs, News values, content analysis
 

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Author :Ibrahim Mohammed Alshatwy, P.H.D
Discipline :Arabic

Literary explanations Study in the formation of cognitive discourse

It is possible to say that the old Arabic scholars started their scientific movement with explanation. At the first, explaining the Quran with Hadaith and old Arabic poetry which became an independent field of study, afterward.
It starts as a simple trying to enlighten the inherited old poetry but soon, the major elements were used in the explanation by the scholars. These elements constructed the science of explanation where scholars committed to cover them in their explanation; such as several narration of the words of the line of poem, several meaning of the words of poem and the previous use of the poetry meaning between other poets.
However, these elements became no longer essential in explanation structure but applying them in finding out the possibilities of meaning of the poetic sentence or the line of poem which led the scholars to dig down with these elements into the structure of the line to find out the true meaning using "intention" of the poet as an excuse for these digging.
Meanwhile, they posted some meaning as they disgrace others pretending, in this process, objectivity with using the mention elements as scientific tools to understand the poetry and convey the meaning while they were influenced  by their social and historical background which governed their test and choices. This final result makes explanation epistemological discourse rather than a school explanation.
 

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Author :Rachid Zine El Abidine, Ph.D.
Discipline :HISTORY

The policy of the Ottoman sultans to take care of the Hajj caravan in the 12th century AH / 18th century

This study seeks to show the degree of conformity of the theoretical level with the practical reality with regard to the Ottoman attention to the caravan of Hajj in the 18th century. In this regard, the study attempted to define the caravan of Hajj as a human gathering of thousands of people traveling to Mecca who have a lot of money, gifts and other important things they need to travel. So the caravan needs protection. We have shown through the Ottoman laws that taking attention to the caravan of Hajj is obligatory for the Ottoman governor. Then we tried to evaluate the services provided by the governors in this area: the caravan arming service and the road safety service and the road equipment service and service to provide water and service welcome to the pilgrims. And after evaluating these services based on the impressions of Moroccan pilgrims, we came to the conclusion that the level of achievement was low. We tried to explain the low level of ensuring the pilgrims, by addressing the internal and external conditions of the provinces, in order to identify those responsible for what happened and whether it was the central or local power

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Author :Haila Abdulla Othman AL Assaf Ph.D.
Discipline :Arabic

Narrative Techniques in the Novel of “The Current of Consciousness” “Aisha Descends to the Underworld” – Buthaina AlIsa As a Model

The research aims at clarifying the influence of the current consciousness on the art of the narrative process and its acceptance, and studying the most important narrative techniques that are part of formation of the stream of consciousness, through its narrative model in the novel of “Aisha descends to the underworld” by the Kuwaiti novelist Buthaina AlIsa, which was a catalyst motivation for the analytical psychological pattern of the research.
The research adopts the psychological approach according to the vision of the psychoanalysis school of the Austrian scientist Sigmund Freud, mostly to explore the soles of the novel heroine of the protagonist character, according to the tendency of the current of consciousness heading to analyze the abnormal personalities psychologically as well as mentally.
The researcher concluded that the expressive literal meaning of the current novel contradicts its inner reality, and that it requires the actual collaboration of the psychological as well as the technical components in order to decode its codes and implications and to reach its true meaning. It was also revealed that the narrative character, that adopts the current of consciousness as a narrative form, selects certain narrative techniques to imply its suppressed feeling, and implement such feeling internally deliberately and directly, and parting from the traditional pattern that focuses on the external form and appearance.
 

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Author :Dr. Mohamed Saeed Abdul Majeed Dr. Mamdouh Abdel Wahed Mohamed Alehiti
Discipline :Sociology

Arab spring revolutions and social dimensions of development policies: The Egyptian case is a model

This study aims to discuss and analyze the relationship between the Arab spring revolutions and the social dimensions of development policies through applying the Egyptian model in order to understand the developmental context that can lead some groups and social segments in Egyptian society to resort to the option of strikes and sit-ins" Street option", to express its rejection of the obvious economic, political and social conditions, as well as its revolution against the spread of corruption in many institutions of society in an unprecedented manner.
The study was based on a descriptive analytical method and a method of re-analysis and synthesis. We collected the data using the analysis of ready-made data and an interview guide that was applied to a sample of (24) individual professors and experts in sociology, economics and human development to know their views on the study issues.
The study concluded - from Analytical reading and the majority of the sample - that the absence of interest in the social dimensions of development policies in the Arab countries in general and Egypt in particular - exacerbate the problems of poverty and unemployment, the absence of  justice in the distribution of incomes and wealth and the fruits of development in general, and the deteriorating economic and social conditions of many groups And the absence of social justice - is one of the main reasons for the Arab spring revolutions.
 

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